This report examines innovative mechanisms that can help attract new financial resources into water and sanitation services. In particular, it focuses on mobilising market-based repayable financing (such as loans, bonds and equity) as a way of bridging the financial gap to meet the water-related Millennium Development Goals and other crucial sector objectives. The Camdessus and Gurría reports, published seven and four years ago, respectively, formulated a number of recommendations in this area. This report examines the extent to which these recommendations have been implemented. It looks at the rapidly evolving global context and to the ongoing financial and economic crisis, and considers how innovation in financing for the water sector may need to adapt.