This publication presents the results of the first OECD investment policy review of Vietnam. It finds that the progress Vietnam has achieved in less than two decades in putting into place a legal framework and implementing policies that mobilise private investment, including international direct investment, to support economic growth and the prosperity of Vietnam´s citizens has been remarkable. Starting from a situation in which the economy was essentially closed to private and international investment, Vietnam is now considered to be one of the very attractive economies in the world for investment.
OECD's comprehensive review of rural policy in Italy. On average, rural regions in Italy have some of the highest GDP per capita among the OECD countries, yet unexploited potential remains. This analysis of rural Italy reveals heterogeneous economic conditions, an increasing elderly population and a diminished focus on environmental concerns. This suggests the need for a broader rural policy approach that reflects the changing demands upon rural resources and that considers other aspects of rurality including health, education and quality of life.
OECD's review of investment policy in Zambia reviews the country's investment policy, investment promotion and facilitation, trade and competition policy, tax policy, corporate governance, policies for promoting responsible business conduct, infrastructure development and other aspects of the policy framework for investment.
Cette étude s'intéresse à la prévention du risque d'inondation de la Seine en Ile-de-France. Elle étudie l'impact qu'une inondaton majeure telle que celle produite en 1910 pourrait avoir sur le bien-être des citoyens, le fonctonnement de la métropole et l'économie. Elle propose des pistes d'améloration relative à la gouvernance et la prévention de ce risque majeur.
Damages to economic assets resulting from natural disasters have soared in the past fifteen years, and climate change models forecast intensified exposure to extreme weather in many OECD countries. This OECD review of risk management policies focuses on Japan, because the geography, topography and climate of its national territory subject it to serious natural hazards, especially seismic activity and typhoons. The report looks at Japan´s policies in the areas of monitoring, preparing for and responding to floods and earthquakes, seeking out and identifying good practices and areas where improvements could be made. The case studies consider several issues of particular interest to policy makers, such as how to take climate change into account for long term policy planning related to large scale floods, and Japan´s unique earthquake insurance scheme for damages whose probability and impact are hard to accurately assess.
Ce rapport analyse les évolutions des politiques agricoles intervenues au cours de la période 2006-08 dans sept économies : Afrique du Sud, Brésil, Chili, Chine, Inde, Russie et Ukraine. Cette période a été marquée par une hausse significative des prix mondiaux de la plupart des produits agricoles, mais pas de tous cependant. Face à la flambée des prix alimentaires, les pouvoirs publics ont mis en place différentes mesures : réductions tarifaires, restrictions à l´exportation, relèvement des prix minimums et contrôle des prix, subventions aux intrants, vente des stocks et transferts directs aux plus démunis. Par ailleurs, ils ont souvent choisi de développer les mécanismes de crédit bonifié et/ou de rééchelonnement de la dette, cherché à améliorer la mise en oeuvre et les performances des politiques agricoles, étendu plus largement les programmes d´assurance, et accéléré la réforme agraire. Le rapport comprend également une annexe statistique très complète, qui donne un large éventail d´informations contextuelles sur ces économies.
Le rapport fournit les estimations du soutien accordé à l´agriculture entre 1995 et 2007 pour six des pays pris en compte (à l´exception de l´Inde), effectuées conformément à la méthode de mesure de l´OCDE récemment révisée. Ces chiffres permettent une comparaison cohérente de l´évolution du niveau et de la composition du soutien aux producteurs et à l´ensemble du secteur, tant entre les différentes économies émergentes qu´avec les pays de l´OCDE.
This fourth annual assessment of transparency and tax information policies carried out by the OECD Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information brings to 87 the number of countries covered by the report. Four new countries are covered in this edition: Estonia, India, Israel, and Slovenia. This edition also features for each country new summary assessments providing a snapshot of their legal and administrative framework. The report sets out on a series of tables, on a country-by-country basis, information on: laws and agreements permitting the exchange of information for tax purposes; access to bank information for tax purposes; access to ownership identity and accounting information; and availability of ownership, identity and accounting information relating to companies, trusts, partnerships and foundations.
Le rapport des Perspectives agricoles de l'OCDE et de la FAO 2016-2025 présente une analyse des marchés nationaux, régionaux et mondiaux de produits agricoles de 41 pays et 12 régions, dont les pays membres de l'OCDE (l'Union européenne est représentée comme une région) et d'importants producteurs agricoles, tels que l'Inde, la Chine, le Brésil, la Fédération de Russie et l'Argentine. Le chapitre spécial de cette édition est consacré aux perspectives et aux défis du secteur agricole en Afrique subsaharienne. Cette édition représente la douzième année de coopération entre les deux organisations.
Corruption has a devastating impact on developing and transition countries, with estimates of $20 billion to $40 billion per year stolen by public officials, a figure equivalent to 20 to 40 percent of official development assistance flows. The return of the proceeds of corruption- asset recovery-can have a significant development impact. Returns can be used directly for development purposes, such as improvements in the health and education sectors and reintegration of displaced persons, with additional benefits of improved international co-operation and enhanced capacity of law enforcement and financial management officials. Development agencies and those committed to development effectiveness have a role in the asset recovery process. They have made international commitments to fight corruption and recover the proceeds of corruption in the Third High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness: Accra Agenda for Actions, held in Accra, Ghana, in 2008, and in the Fourth High Level Forum on Aid Effectiveness: Partnership for Effective Development, held in Busan, Republic of Korea, in 2011. Despite these efforts, there has been difficulty in translating these commitments into concrete action. This StAR-OECD publication reports on how OECD countries are performing on asset recovery.
Drawing on data collected between 2006 and 2012, the report provides recommendations and good practices, and suggests specific actions for development agencies. Few and Far is primarily intended to support the anti-corruption and asset recovery efforts of developed and developing jurisdictions, with a particular focus on actions for development agencies. In addition, civil society organisations engaged in governance and development issues may wish to use these findings and recommendations in their reports and advocacy efforts.
This book identifies the strong potential of the local development approach to help regenerate the economies and societies of less developed regions and to bring greater local participation in the decision-making and actions that underpin restructuring. It is important that the local development policies put into place respond to emerging challenges and take into account innovations and lessons from elsewhere. This book reviews some of these challenges, innovations and lessons. It provides some practical examples (Ballyhoura in Ireland, Serra do Caldierao in Portugal and Jerez in Spain) that will help local actors to make informed decisions on the policy strategies, structures and actions to apply in their own areas.
The actions and policies of government touch our daily lives in countless ways. Quantifying and measuring government actions can help leaders make better decisions, and can help to hold government accountable to its citizens.
Government at a Glanceis a new, biennial publication of the OECD providing over 30 indicators describing government performance. It compares the political and institutional frameworks of government across OECD countries, as well as government revenues, expenditures and employment. It also includes indicators describing government policies and practices in integrity, e-government and open government, and introduces several composite indexes summarising key aspects of public management practices in human resource management, budgeting and regulatory management. For each figure, the book provides a dynamic link (StatLink) which directs the user to a web page where the corresponding data are available in Excel(r) format.
Against the background of a projected doubling of world greenhouse gas emissions by mid-century, this book explores feasible ways to abate them at least cost. Through quantitative analysis, it addresses key climate policy issues including: an ideal set of climate policy tools; the size of the economic and environmental costs of incomplete country or sector coverage of climate change mitigation policies; how to concretely develop a global carbon market; the case for, and what can we reasonably expect from, R&D and technology support policies; and the incentives for major emitting countries to join a climate change mitigation agreement.
Cet ouvrage s´appuie sur les principales conclusions et recommandations ressortant des évaluations réalisées par les donneurs pour recenser les facteurs qui ont contribué au succès (ou à l´échec) des programmes passés et prodiguer des conseils destinés à accroître l´efficacité et l´impact des activités futures d´aide liée au commerce. Ce rapport vient à point nommé pour alimenter le débat en cours entre spécialistes de l´aide et des échanges sur les moyens de faire en sorte que " l´aide à l´appui des échanges " constitue, de par sa conception et ses modes d´acheminement, un complément efficace au PDD.
National Accounts data is more than just GDP. This book, to be published annually, and its related database present national accounts in a way that reflects the richness inherent in the data and the value that represents for analysts and policymakers. It responds to the Stiglitz Commission´s recommendation that policymakers look beyond GDP to get a fuller picture of the entire economy.
In particular is uses national accounts data to show important findings about households and governments, including important new series on gross adjusted household income and non-financial fixed assets of households. It presents each of the series on a two-page spread, with the page on the left providing information on the meaning, usage, and comparability of the data and the page on the right presenting data from 1995 onwards for the OECD countries as well as graphics highlighting differences among countries.
This book includes OECD´s unique StatLink service, which enables readers to download Excel(r) versions of tables and graphs. Look for the StatLink at the foot of each table and graph.
What impact has globalisation had on transport? And what have been the consequences for the environment? This book aims to answer these questions and more. It looks in detail at how globalisation has affected activity levels in maritime shipping, aviation, and road and rail freight, and assesses the impact that changes in activity levels have had on the environment. The book also discusses policy instruments that can be used to address negative environmental impacts, both from an economic perspective and from the point of view of international law.
Related reading :
Environmental Outlook to 2030 (2008) The Economics of Climate Change Mitigation: Policies and Options for Global Action beyond 2012 (2009)
Eco-innovation will be a key driver of industry efforts to tackle climate change and realise "green growth" in the post-Kyoto era. Eco-innovation calls for faster introduction of breakthrough technologies and for more systemic application of available solutions, including non-technological ones. It also offers opportunities to involve new players, develop new industries and increase competitiveness. Structural change in economies will be imperative in coming decades.
This book presents the research and analysis carried out during the first phase of the OECD Project on Sustainable Manufacturing and Eco-innovation. Its aim is to provide benchmarking tools on sustainable manufacturing and to spur eco- innovation through better understanding of innovation mechanisms. It reviews the concepts and forms an analytical framework; analyses the nature and processes of eco-innovation; discusses existing sustainable manufacturing indicators; examines methodologies for measuring eco-innovation; and takes stock of national strategies and policy initiatives for eco-innovation.
The world is currently facing the aftermath of the worst financial crisis since the Great Depression. Going for Growth 2010examines the structural policy measures that have been taken in response to the crisis, evaluates their possible impact on long-term economic growth, and identifies the most imperative reforms needed to strengthen recovery. In addition, it provides a global assessment of policy reforms implemented in OECD member countries over the past five years to boost employment and labour productivity. Reform areas include education systems, product market regulation, agricultural policies, tax and benefit systems, health care and labour market policies. The internationally comparable indicators provided enable countries to assess their economic performance and structural policies in a wide range of areas.
In addition, this issue contains three analytical chapters covering intergenerational social mobility, prudential regulation and competition in banking, and key policy challenges in Brazil, China, India, Indonesia and South Africa.
What do we know about how people learn? How do young people´s motivations and emotions influence their learning? What does research show to be the benefits of group work, formative assessments, technology applications, or project-based learning and when are they most effective? How is learning affected by family background? These are among the questions addressed for the OECD by leading researchers from North America and Europe. This book brings together the lessons of research on both the nature of learning and different educational applications, and it summarises these as seven key concluding principles. Among the contributors are Brigid Barron, Monique Boekaerts, Erik de Corte, Linda Darling-Hammond, Kurt Fischer, Andrew Furco, Richard Mayer, Lauren Resnick, Barbara Schneider, Robert Slavin, James Spillane, Elsbeth Stern and Dylan Wiliam.
The Nature of Learning: Using Research to Inspire Practice is essential reading for all those interested in knowing what research has to say about how to optimise learning in classrooms, schools and other settings. It aims, first and foremost, to inform practice and educational reform. It will be of particular interest to teachers, education leaders, teacher educators, advisors and decision makers, as well as the research community