Il s'agit dans cette réflexion de comprendre et de saisir les enjeux que suscite la pratique de l'humour et de l'ironie dans des situations dramatiques, déplorables voire tragiques qu'est le contexte de l'Afrique: rire pour (se) corriger, contester, sans pour autant être agressif? Dénoncer sans en avoir l'air? Est-ce une nouvelle esthétique? A travers l'analyse des oeuvres qui vont des années 1958 à nos jours, à savoir celles de Mongo Béti, Ferdinand Oyono, et plus contemporaines comme celles de A. Mabanckou..., ce livre démontre comment le rire, à travers toutes les différentes formes qu'il peut prendre, à savoir la dérision, la parodie, le sarcasme, le grotesque par le biais de l'humour et de l'ironie qui sont les manifestations apparentes, est un outil à la fois de la contestation, de dédramatisation des situations tragiques, mais aussi une esthétique d'écriture en soi dans la représentation du réel, du sérieux, que ce soit au niveau social, politique ou de l'écriture elle-même qui joue à la fois sur la dissimulation, sur le carnavalesque, la polyphonie et le grotesque pour finir à une poétique du rire.
Cet ouvrage de synthèse s'adresse aux étudiants, enseignants, et chercheurs en didactique des langues étrangères. Il est présenté sous la forme d'un outil complet et maniable, qui cherche à faciliter le repérage et l'apprentissage des notions, tout en stimulant la réflexion et en soulignant les liens entre fondements théoriques et pratiques de classe. Après une brève mise en perspective des apports et limites des principaux courants en didactique, l'auteur se tourne vers les travaux récents qui ouvrent de nouvelles pistes pour la didactique des langues. Les recherches sur la métacognition et les stratégies, mais aussi sur l'approche par les tâches dans le cadre sociocognitif, ainsi que les apports des théories socioculturelles d'inspiration vygotskienne et du courant littératie sont présentés de façon claire et synthétique. Les passerelles théoriques entre les travaux portant sur la métacognition et les recherches interactionnistes d'inspiration vygotskienne sont mises en évidence, afin de faire émerger leurs convergences et leurs dimensions complémentaires. Des questions de réflexion sont proposées à la fin de chaque chapitre. L'objectif principal de ce livre est de permettre au lecteur de se constituer un bagage théorique sur les travaux récents, tout en s'engageant dans un questionnement didactique. Un ouvrage de référence qui rend compte de façon synthétique des avancées significatives de ces dernières années, propose de nombreuses orientations de lecture et pose des jalons pour que puisse avancer la réflexion et que se renouvellent les approches et les pratiques de classe.
Que se joue-t-il entre le voyage et la littérature au début du XXe siècle ? Cet ouvrage se penche sur les oeuvres de Blaise Cendrars, de Victor Segalen et d'Albert Londres pour comprendre comment s'articulent le voyage et son écriture autour du motif de l'éclat. Dans ces trois oeuvres, le lien entre soi, le monde et l'autre est profondément remis en question dès qu'il est question de voyage. L'écriture elle-même a tendance à sortir des sentiers battus et menace d'éclatement certaines classifications narratives, linguistiques, génériques et poétiques. Plus encore, les textes étudiés obligent le critique qui veut les suivre à tracer une trajectoire qui lui est propre afin d'étudier de près les directions prises par ces textes en perpétuelle partance. Ce livre propose de s'engager dans cette trajectoire critique et, tout en cheminant, montre la nécessité de penser conjointement voyage et éclatement, voyage et littérature, et suggère une nouvelle lecture des textes considérés.
Au sein des études ludiques, les théoriciens insistent davantage sur l'aspect social du jeu (Caillois, Huizinga), faisant un peu vite de la littérature ludique un acte gratuit ou encore une simple forme de divertissement (Genette). Le jeu dont il est question ici est de l'ordre du construit et de la configuration, dans la lignée de l'approche philosophique de Jacques Henriot et dans la plus grande tradition mathématique. Notre corpus est constitué de deux textes combinatoires fondateurs de l'Ouvroir de Littérature Potentielle, Cent mille milliards de poèmes de Raymond Queneau et Le château des destins croisés d'Italo Calvino. Leur nature combinatoire, dont l'absence de linéarité demande au lecteur de faire des choix et des hypothèses, est un défi au labyrinthe, qui est ici analysé selon le potentiel reconfigurateur du sonnet sur les modes de l'interaction physique du lecteur avec le texte et du texte avec l'objet-livre pour le texte quenien, et selon le potentiel interprétatif du lecteur sur les modes de l'embranchement et de la réécriture pour le texte calvinien. Le champ des littératures à contraintes est constitué majoritairement de modèles de lecture cryptanalytique qui privilégient les textes avec une modalité implicite (Wagner) de métatextualisation de la contrainte. Au contraire, cette étude s'intéresse à la modalité ergodique empruntée à la cybernétique (Aarseth), qui met en place une rhétorique de la contrainte (Reggiani, Thomas) servant un projet plus vaste de lisibilité du texte combinatoire.
Hermann Hesse once stated that his Japanese readers understood him best among all his readers worldwide - a little known fact among readers of Hesse in the West. This book examines Hesse's reception in Japan and of Japan in the context of a transcultural reception process. It traces the different phases of Hesse's reception in Japan and contextualises this reception in terms of the regional setting of East Asia and the cultural authority of imperial Japan. The role of transcultural mediators as figurative nodes in the world literature system is analysed, with a particular focus on the key role played by Hesse's «Japanese» cousin, Wilhelm Gundert. Finally, Hesse's epistolary exchange with his Japanese readers is unfolded to show how deep affinities arise, which result in the creation of a type of «spiritual» capital. This epistolary exchange, together with the translation of the Zen bible Pi Yen Lu by Wilhelm Gundert, inspired Hesse to write a series of three unique Zen-poems as a means of expressing a lifelong search for transcendence.
A reconciliation movement spread across Australia during the 1990s, bringing significant marches, speeches, and policies across the country. Indigenous and non-Indigenous Australians began imagining race relations in new ways and articulations of place, belonging, and being together began informing literature of a unique new genre. This book explores the political and poetic paradigms of reconciliation represented in Australian writing of this period. The author brings together textual evidence of themes and a vernacular contributing to the emergent genre of reconciliatory literature. The nexus between resistance and reconciliation is explored as a complex process to understanding sovereignty, colonial history, and the future of society. Moreover, this book argues it is creative writing that is most necessary for a deeper understanding of each other and of place, because it is writing that calls one to witness, to feel, and to imagine all at the same time.
Georges Henein, poète francophone d'Égypte apporte une contribution manifeste à la discipline des études littéraires francophones et comble un grand vide dans le domaine encore à peine exploré de la francophonie au Moyen Orient. Cet ouvrage met en lumière la vie et l'oeuvre de Georges Henein, l'un des pères du surréalisme égyptien, souvent comparé à André Breton. Un premier chapitre analyse l'empreinte historique, littéraire et culturelle laissée par la France sur l'Égypte, de l'expédition de Bonaparte aux années 1960. Un second volet montre comment le mouvement surréaliste français a pris racine dans le pays du Levant au cours des années 1920 et étudie ses effets sur la littérature égyptienne avant la crise de Suez. Le troisiLe troisième et dernier chapitre est consacré à une analyse de textes choisis et tente de définir le projet poétique et l'orientation politique de l'auteur. Cette réflexion montre également en quoi les textes d'Henein sont une contribution majeure à la littérature française et francophone et pourquoi ils méritent une place centrale dans le canon littéraire du 20e siècle. Cet ouvrage s'adresse à un large public international et interdisciplinaire. Chercheurs, professeurs et étudiants, mais aussi non-spécialistes trouveront dans ce livre une source leur permettant de se familiariser avec le mouvement surréaliste francophone en Égypte, ainsi qu'Henein, ses oeuvres, et son époque. Un nombre encore limité d'études ont été publiées dans le domaine de la littérature francophone d'Égypte et beaucoup de ses auteurs restent largement inconnus du grand public. C'est à cette lacune que cet ouvrage tente de remédier. English summary: Georges Henein, French poet of Egypt provides a clear contribution to the discipline of the French literary studies and fills a void in the still barely explored area of the Francophonie in the Middle East. This book highlights the life and work of Georges Henein, one of the fathers of the Egyptian surrealism, often compared to André Breton.
À travers la biographie de John Patrick Leonard transparaît une histoire des relations franco-irlandaises au XIXe siècle. Professeur d'anglais dans un collège parisien, il mène une vie honorable et conforme aux normes de la société française. Il utilise habilement les réseaux qu'il s'est constitué dans différents milieux, au sein de l'aristocratie et de la bourgeoisie françaises, du clergé catholique, et des cercles politiques et économiques, pour construire des projets tels que la colonie irlandaise d'Algérie (1869), l'ambulance irlandaise durant le conflit franco-prussien (1870-1871), et la promotion des industries irlandaises dans les Expositions universelles. Parallèlement et dans le plus grand secret, Leonard se lie à de nombreux nationalistes irlandais comme William Smith O'Brien, James Stephens et John O'Leary.
Basé sur de nombreuses sources inédites, cet ouvrage offre une nouvelle perspective sur l'histoire irlandaise. Il souligne l'internationalisation de la question irlandaise durant la seconde moitié du XIXe siècle. Ce livre révèle également les liens tissés entre les élites françaises et irlandaises, les activités et les projets de Leonard reposant sur les réseaux sociaux qu'il construit sa vie durant dans différents milieux, en France et en Irlande.
Medieval liturgical practice both expressed and helped shape habits of thought and imagination in ways which were deep and far-reaching, encompassing embodied, lived experience and the most sophisticated theological thought. This book argues that Dante, in common with his contemporaries, saw the liturgical rituals of the Church as a mode of religious practice which manifested what he considered to be the central truths regarding the relationship between God, human beings, and the world. It also shows how Dante's Commedia engages with medieval understandings of the sacraments, an idea which has been largely neglected in studies of Dante. Seen in this way, the poet's engagement with liturgy is central to the daring and highly original poetic project of the Commedia, shaping its treatment of time, its engagement with theology, and its portrayal of the soul's awakening to the condition of creation itself.
The Great War set in motion all of the subsequent violence of the twentieth century. The war took millions of lives, led to the fall of four empires, established new nations, and negatively affected others. During and after the war, individuals and communities struggled to find expression for their wartime encounters and communal as well as individual mourning. Throughout this time of enormous upheaval, many artists redefined their role in society, among them writers, performers, painters, and composers. Some sought to renew or re-establish their place in the postwar climate, while others longed for an irretrievable past, and still others tried to break with the past entirely.
This volume offers a significant interdisciplinary contribution to the study of modern war, exploring the ways that artists contributed to wartime culture - both representing and shaping it - as well as the ways in which wartime culture influenced artistic expressions. Artists' places within and against reconstruction efforts illuminate the struggles of the day. The essays included represent a transnational perspective and seek to examine how artists dealt with the experience of conflict and mourning and their role in (re-)establishing creative practices in the changing climate of the interwar years.
Pastoral Theology is taught in secondary schools through the Christian Religious Studies (CRS) syllabus. The primary focus of this book is to present the theological content in the curriculum of CRS. It presents the actual content designed by educationists using the Nigerian model. This model has been discovered to be basically Christological in its approach. It is highly influenced by the historical influence of early Christian missionaries dating back to the 1500s and later structured after the English and Irish model before independence of many African countries. It shows why the teaching of CRS has stood the test of time within the various stages of the development of the secondary school syllabus. It proposes an African Theology of Education (ATE). It is linked with social Justice, public ethics and is closely connected with studying the Holy Bible.
Viennese-born actor Adolf Wohlbrück enjoyed huge success on both stage and screen in Germany during the 1920s and 1930s, becoming one of the first truly international stars. After leaving Nazi Germany for Hollywood in 1936, he changed his name to Anton Walbrook and then settled in Britain, where he won filmgoers' hearts with his portrayal of Prince Albert in two lavish biopics of Queen Victoria. Further film success followed with Dangerous Moonlight and Gaslight, several collaborations with Michael Powell and Emeric Pressburger - including his striking performance as Lermontov in The Red Shoes - and later work with Max Ophuls and Otto Preminger.
Despite great popularity and a prolifi c career of some forty films, alongside theatre, radio and television work, Walbrook was an intensely private individual who kept much of his personal life hidden from view. His reticence created an aura of mystery and «otherness» about him, which coloured both his acting performances and the way he was perceived by the public - an image that was reinforced in Britain by his continental background.
Remarkably, this is the first full-length biography of Walbrook, drawing on over a decade of extensive archival research to document his life and acting career.
What, exactly, is understanding? And how do people create, maintain, and manipulate states of understanding via communication? This book addresses these questions, drawing on interdisciplinary scholarship in cognitive science, communication, psychology, and pragmatics. Rejecting classic descriptions of communication as "sending and receiving messages," this book proposes a novel perspective that depicts communication as a process in which interactants construct, test, and refine mental modes of a joint experience on the basis of the meme states (mental representations) activated by stimuli in social interactions. It explains how this process, when successful, results in interactants' mental models aligning, or becoming entrained-in other words, in creating a state of understanding. This framework is grounded in a set of foundational observations about evolved human cognition that highlight people's intrinsic social orientation, predisposition toward efficiency, and use of predictive interference-making. These principles are also used to explain how codified systems ("codes") emerge in extended or repeated interactions in which people endeavor to create understanding. Integrating and synthesizing research across disciplines, this book offers communication scholars and students a theoretical framework that will transform the way they see understanding, communication, and social connection.
Philanthropy is on the rise around the world, working in the fields of health, development and, most often, education. Different from charity, now donations are used as "social investment" with specific goals. In education, big corporations and wealthy businessmen strive to reform education through their philanthropic "giving", and have managed to assemble considerable influence in policymaking processes in many countries. But how do new philanthropy organisations promote education reform? And how does their policy work look like in practice? In this book, the author analyses the efforts of large foundations in Brazilian education governance to address these questions. Though having the main empirical setting of Brazilian institutions, this book analyses networks, policies and discourses that surpass national borders and also addresses how new philanthropists are connected to global networks. With support of network ethnography and concepts from Political Science and Human Geography, the author invites the readers to challenge preconceived ideas of how governments and new philanthropy operate, and observe the behind-the-scenes work of new philanthropy to reform education.
This book pays tribute to an intellectual giant. The twenty-one succinct chapters comprising the volume, and the variety of scholars who have authored them, are indicative of his intellectual, geographical and intergenerational reach. These chapters reflect the towering influence of Roger Dale's work in fields such as the Sociology of Education, Globalization and Education Policy Studies, and Comparative and International Education. While engaging critically with Roger's intellectual ideas-and without exception the authors demonstrate the significance of these to their own theoretical and research endeavors-they also include personal reflections on his role as mentor, role model, networker, and friend. Together the chapters are testimony to the richness, quality and diversity of Roger Dale's work and the extent to which it has inspired several generations of scholars from very different world locations. In a final chapter, Roger Dale himself responds from his usual humble position to all contributors and reviews the key aspects of an exceptional and ongoing intellectual journey.
The student-instructor dynamic has become more complex in recent years. Writing instructors, in particular, see the vulnerabilities expressed by students in their writing. This book provides a wide variety of theories and techniques for writing teachers on the integration of emotion into writing instruction. Current writing instructors, as well as students of the craft, can benefit from the ideas and strategies offered by a variety of practitioners in the field. This book includes offerings, such as theories in development, empirical studies, and lesson plans designed to benefit writing instructors and their students.
Changing people's practice is difficult, shifting the culture of an organization even more so. This book is a description of how one education preparation program did both. This is the story of how they transformed their student teaching program, creating tools and structures that resulted in mentors and student teachers working together in new ways. At the heart of their model is an assessment tool-STAT, for short-used to track the growth and development of student teachers and guide conversations between the college supervisor, cooperating teacher and student teacher. Although this book describes Hope College's new student teaching model it is really about change. This story takes the reader through the complex change process of one institution, examining the loosely coupled dynamic between leaders and individuals. It describes the natural tension between support and autonomy as program leaders walk alongside individuals as they enact a new practice. This book is intended for teacher educators interested in a developmental model of mentor support, but also for those faced with the daunting task of making changes in their own program. There are lessons learned, however, that go beyond teacher preparation and may serve as a catalyst for others as they engage in their own change process.
Autoethnography in Undergraduate Writing Courses blends narrative and analysis in an engaging and applicable account of how the genre of autoethnography can be a valuable addition or alternative to traditional research assignments.
Many writing teachers struggle to motivate and equip students to conduct meaningful and effective research. Practicing autoethnography-the scholarly combination of personal reflection, artistic representation, and social/cultural research-provides an opportunity for students to research and write about something that genuinely interests them: their own experiences.
A genre of personal writing, autoethnography is comparable to pedagogy pioneered by expressivists like Donald Murray, Peter Elbow, and Wendy Bishop, among others. However, combining personal writing with research-as autoethnography does-is more rare. Some compositionists have already used autoethnography in their own research and teaching, but this book demonstrates why more compositionists should consider adopting autoethnography into their pedagogy.
The author shares his own experience teaching autoethnography at the undergraduate level, modeling its potential and demonstrating its impact. Written in a lively, conversational voice, the book presents substantial qualitative research, including samples of student writing, supplemented by student interviews and surveys.
These data indicate that practicing autoethnography can have unusually, if not uniquely, positive effects on students' lives. Specifically, the author identifies and illustrates eight outcomes of practicing autoethnography: increased reflexivity, improved research and writing skills, greater awareness of ethical issues, critical empowerment, therapeutic catharsis, enjoyment, and the development of a sense of community.
Why are the arts and humanities under attack? And how can they fight back?
Historically these fields have suffered from a lack of prestige due to the utilitarian perspective of the «developed» world. While such utilitarian views have not been entirely fair on this branch of knowledge, the humanities themselves are partly to blame for this crisis, often not keeping pace with an increasingly changing society. It is therefore imperative that the humanities once and for all prove themselves relevant, leaving behind «departmentalized» approaches to academic knowledge and embracing the social mission that once epitomized humanistic study.
Guided by such principles, this book features fourteen interdisciplinary studies that explore exciting intersections between different areas of academic research. These studies centre around three broad topics, which function as this volume's structural axes: identity, gender, and space and mobility (whether voluntary, as in tourism, or imposed, as in the case of migrations and persecutions). Altogether, the volume demonstrates that the humanities, far from being artificially detached from society, can actually study the enormously complex context that is contemporary Europe and crucially point the way to a better, more equitable world.
Narratives and storytelling are how we create shared meaning and experience the world with others. Implications of narrative are vast and apply to many disciplines. The persuasive function of narrative can be seen in marketing, advertising, strategic social media, and public relations whose practitioners are using narrative based strategies to deeply engage audiences.
This interdisciplinary volume seeks to explore the range of applications and implications of using persuasive narrative and storytelling. Persuasive strategies include the use of influencers, celebrities, virtual reality, interactive games, and content marketing (among others). The authors explore the impact of the innovative strategies that persuaders are using to capture attention and actively engage audiences.
Through a variety of theoretical, qualitative, and quantitative approaches, this book focuses on the application and outcomes of narrative strategy. Ultimately we see this collection as a way to inspire narrative research into new directions and applications in media, marketing, public relations, advertising, and strategic communication fields.
Cinema Derrida charts Jacques Derrida's collaborations and appearances in film, video, and television beginning with 1983's Ghost Dance (dir. Ken McMullen, West Germany/UK) and ending with 2002's biographical documentary Derrida (dir. Dick and Ziering, USA). In the last half of his working life, Derrida embraced popular art forms and media in more ways than one: not only did he start making more media appearances after years of refusing to have his photo taken in the 1960s and 1970s, but his philosophy also started to draw more explicitly from visual culture and artistic endeavours. While this book offers explanations of this transition, it contends the image of "Jacques Derrida" that emerges from film and TV appearances remains spectral, constantly deferring a complete grasp of him.
Tyson Stewart draws out the main tenets of spectrality from Derrida's seminal texts Of Grammatology and Specters of Marx and other writings, like Echographies of Television, in order to fill a gap in studies of Derrida and film. Throughout the book, he explains how various techniques and spectral effects such as slow motion, stillness, repetition, mise-en-abîme, direct address, and focus on body parts/bodily presence bring about a structure of spectrality wherein the past other returns to make impressions and ethical demands on the viewer. Drawing on communication theory and film and media studies, Cinema Derrida makes a major intervention in classical communication thought.
This contributed volume explores institutional and programmatic policies and practices which actively engage students as partners in improving student learning. This entails an examination of the degree to which students are partners in the assessment and learning processes and the characteristics of these partnerships. This volume showcases student partnerships, as well as presents a history of institutional culture affecting student learning, the role of students in teaching and learning, and brings student voices and perspectives to bare through research from a variety of institutional types. Case studies, current programs and activities, and a model for culturally-responsive assessment are highlighted to better understand student-focused learning and assessment. Implications for faculty, staff, and administrators are questioned. Overall, this volume links research to practice, and offers faculty, practitioners, and administrators different forms and methods of including students, while keeping issues of equity in mind.
This book argues that Nietzsche's Thus Spoke Zarathustra employs circular and cyclical (diurnal and seasonal) symbols to communicate both the life-affirmative and the cosmological aspect of "recurrence" as a unifying idea. It shows that twelve day cycles, which run throughout the book's narrative, and the one full annual cycle, which encompasses the circular and the diurnal images in a continuous cycle of life affirmation, track Zarathustra's ever-changing identity throughout the text. In representing the eternal recurrence, the circular and the cyclical symbols respectively convey the book's central message: Zarathustra comes into being in order to affirm existence as the teacher of eternal recurrence in an endlessly repeating cosmos. The study complements recent findings that Nietzsche's book is on eternal recurrence by establishing the unity among its language, structure, and fundamental conception, which solves the century-old problem of the communication or location of the doctrine within the text. The book is designed for the specialised audience of Nietzsche studies. It would also appeal to both students and professors in various disciplines across humanities and social sciences, as well as to anyone interested in understanding the basic tenets of Thus Spoke Zarathustra.
Filinto Müller was the most despised police chief in Brazilian history and later a detested senator. Müller bore the brunt of many accusations of police wrongdoing owing to charges by yellow-journalist David Nasser. This volume examines the totality of Müller's life and is the result of 11 years of research in which 66,704 documents, 500 newspapers clippings, and 165 visual items were examined. Numerous interviews were likewise conducted. This work has uncovered little archival evidence to substantiate direct charges against Müller. This book argues, however, that Müller was responsible for the invention of modern-day death squads, the first of their kind in the Americas.