During the first decade of this new millennium, it is estimated that more than EUR100 billion will be invested in the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) in Europe. This fact represents an amazing challenge from both a technical and commercial perspective. Written by experts in the field, this book gives a detailed description of the elements in the UMTS network architecture: the User Equipment (UE), the UMTS Radio Access Network (UTRAN) and the core network. The completely new protocols based on the needs of the new Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) air interface are highlighted by considering both Frequency- and Time-Division Duplex modes. The book further introduces the key features of existing topics in Releases 5, 6 and 7.
Ultrasonic signals are increasingly being used for predicting material behavior, both in an engineering context (detecting anomalies in a variety of structures) and a biological context (examining human bones, body parts and unborn fetuses). Featuring contributions from authors who are specialists in their subject area, this book presents new developments in ultrasonic research in both these areas, including ultrasonic NDE and other areas which go beyond traditional imaging techniques of internal defects. As such, both those in the biological and physical science communities will find this an informative and stimulating read.
The principle of tomography is to explore the structure and composition of objects non-destructively along spatial and temporal dimensions, using penetrating radiation, such as X- and gamma-rays, or waves, such as electromagnetic and acoustic waves. Based on computer-assisted image reconstruction, tomography provides maps of parameters that characterize the emission of the employed radiation or waves, or their interaction with the examined objects, for one or several cross-sections. Thus, it gives access to the inner structure of inert objects and living organisms in their full complexity. In this book, multidisciplinary specialists explain the foundations and principles of tomographic imaging and describe a broad range of applications. The content is organized in five parts, which are dedicated to image reconstruction, microtomography, industrial tomography, morphological medical tomography and functional medical tomography.
After WWII, the United States of America proposed their way of life, based on an unlimited consumption of land, goods, and energy, as a model for the entire world. Nowadays, this expansionist model has reached its limits. This book provides a comprehensive study of the geographical basis of the American settlements, assuming that part of the U.S. overshooting is related to geography because of harsh climates and the continental size of the Nation, but another part is the result of a cultural habits of expansion and segregation. Urban Sprawl, for instance, is the real Achille's heel of America, because it challenges the cultural revolution required by sustainability. From the continental physiography to the New Orleans - Katrina case, this book explores these issues with maps and charts created with the help of a nationwide multiscalar GIS.
This book describes the various devices used in radio communication and broadcasting to achieve high selectivity filtering and coupling. After providing a background in the basics of microwave theory and more detailed material - including a special chapter on precision and errors in measurement - the reader will find detailed descriptions, manufacturing processes, and, for the most useful instances, a number of worked-through formulas, which will allow engineers and technicians to design circuits or components for filtering or coupling applications. Content is covered in this format across a broad range of fields including coaxial cavities, combline filters, band-pass and pass-reject duplexers, multicouplers, circulators, low-noise amplifiers, helix resonators, and much more.
This book demonstrates that not only is it possible to create entities with both consciousness and conscience, but that those entities demonstrate them in ways different from our own, thereby showing a new kind of consciousness.
This title considers the special of random processes known as semi-Markov processes. These possess the Markov property with respect to any intrinsic Markov time such as the first exit time from an open set or a finite iteration of these times.
The class of semi-Markov processes includes strong Markov processes, Lévy and Smith stepped semi-Markov processes, and some other subclasses. Extensive coverage is devoted to non-Markovian semi-Markov processes with continuous trajectories and, in particular, to semi-Markov diffusion processes. Readers looking to enrich their knowledge on Markov processes will find this book a valuable resource.
The creation of a European liberalized electricity internal market and EU commitments for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions (Kyoto Protocol) and for the use of renewable energy generation technologies induce new important constraints and problems on the electric power systems in Europe. This then creates the need for more research and development to engage with these new challenges in order to preserve the reliability of these systems. This book aims to provide advanced tools, covering major aspects, for people involved with such research and development.
Split into two parts (the first covering the operation and control of electric power systems and the second the stability and defence of electric power systems), this book gathers together contributions from numerous well-known European specialists in academia and the electrical industry and will be an illuminating read for those involved in this field or who have some knowledge of the fundamental notions.
For the last 50 years, the power of integrated circuits has continued to grow. However, this performance will end up reaching its physical limit. What new ways will then be available to develop even more powerful and up-to-date systems? This book introduces the principles of quantic computing, the use of nano-tubes in molecular transistors and ADN computing. It suggests new fabrication methods for the 21st century and introduces new architecture models, ranging from the most conventional to the most radical. Using a chronological theme, it explains our unavoidable entry in the nano-device world: from the 1948 transistor to the microchip. It concludes by anticipating the changes in daily living: investments, impact on coding activities, nanocomputing systems implementation and IT job mutation.
This title is devoted to presenting some of the most important concepts and techniques for describing real-time systems and analyzing their behavior in order to enable the designer to achieve guarantees of temporal correctness. Topics addressed include mathematical models of real-time systems and associated formal verification techniques such as model checking, probabilistic modeling and verification, programming and description languages, and validation approaches based on testing. With contributions from authors who are experts in their respective fields, this will provide the reader with the state of the art in formal verification of real-time systems and an overview of available software tools.
The mechanical tests presented in this book are essential for determining the basic properties of the materials used. Areas covered include elasticity, tensile and compression tests, hardness, endurance tests and dynamic tests.
This title sets out to show that 2-D signal analysis has its own role to play alongside signal processing and image processing.
Concentrating its coverage on those 2-D signals coming from physical sensors (such as radars and sonars), the discussion explores a 2-D spectral approach but develops the modeling of 2-D signals and proposes several data-oriented analysis techniques for dealing with them. Coverage is also given to potential future developments in this area.
The area of information fusion has grown considerably during the last few years, leading to a rapid and impressive evolution. In such fast-moving times, it is important to take stock of the changes that have occurred. As such, this books offers an overview of the general principles and specificities of information fusion in signal and image processing, as well as covering the main numerical methods (probabilistic approaches, fuzzy sets and possibility theory and belief functions).
This title provides a comprehensive overview of elastoplasticity relating to soil and rocks. Following a general outline of the models of behavior and their internal structure, each chapter develops a different area of this subject relating to the author's particular expertise. The first half of the book concentrates on the elastoplasticity of soft soils and rocks, while the second half examines that of hard soils and rocks.
Synthetic aperture radar provides broad-area imaging at high resolutions, which is used in applications such as environmental monitoring, earth-resource mapping, and military systems.
This book presents the tools required for the digital processing of synthetic aperture radar images. They are of three types: (a) the elements of physics, (b) mathematical models and (c) image processing methods adapted to particular applications.
This book presents the principles of non-linear integrated optics. The first objective is to provide the reader with a thorough understanding of integrated optics so that they may be able to develop the theoretical and experimental tools to study and control the linear and non-linear optical properties of waveguides.
The potential use of these structures can then be determined in order to realize integrated optical components for light modulation and generation. The theoretical models are accompanied by experimental tools and their setting in order to characterize the studied phenomenon. The passage from theory to practice makes the comprehension of the physical phenomena simple and didactic.
The book also gives a presentation of the industrial applications of the integrated optical components. The studied topics range from the theory of waveguides and the linear and non-linear optical characterization techniques to photonic crystals. This last field constitutes a major challenge of photonic technologies of the 21st century.
During the last decade, image and signal compression for storage and transmission purpose has seen a great expansion. But what about medical data compression? Should a medical image or a physiological signal be processed and compressed like any other data? The progress made in imaging systems, storing systems and telemedicine makes compression in this field particularly interesting. However, this compression has to be adapted to the specificities of biomedical data which contain diagnosis information.
As such, this book offers an overview of compression techniques applied to medical data, including: physiological signals, MRI, X-ray, ultrasound images, static and dynamic volumetric images.
Researchers, clinicians, engineers and professionals in this area, along with postgraduate students in the signal and image processing field, will find this book to be of great interest.
Covering a period of about 25 years, during which time-frequency has undergone significant developments, this book is principally addressed to researchers and engineers interested in non-stationary signal analysis and processing. It is written by recognized experts in the field.
This title presents a large variety of models and algorithms dedicated to the resource-constrained project scheduling problem (RCPSP), which aims at scheduling at minimal duration a set of activities subject to precedence constraints and limited resource availabilities.
In the first part, the standard variant of RCPSP is presented and analyzed as a combinatorial optimization problem. Constraint programming and integer linear programming formulations are given. Relaxations based on these formulations and also on related scheduling problems are presented. Exact methods and heuristics are surveyed. Computational experiments, aiming at providing an empirical insight on the difficulty of the problem, are provided.
The second part of the book focuses on several other variants of the RCPSP and on their solution methods. Each variant takes account of real-life characteristics which are not considered in the standard version, such as possible interruptions of activities, production and consumption of resources, cost-based approaches and uncertainty considerations.
The last part presents industrial case studies where the RCPSP plays a central part. Applications are presented in various domains such as assembly shop and rolling ingots production scheduling, project management in information technology companies and instruction scheduling for VLIW processor architectures.
This is the first book devoted entirely to Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), which is a non-specific algorithm, similar to evolutionary algorithms, such as taboo search and ant colonies. Since its original development in 1995, PSO has mainly been applied to continuous-discrete heterogeneous strongly non-linear numerical optimization and it is thus used almost everywhere in the world. Its convergence rate also makes it a preferred tool in dynamic optimization.
This book deals with these parametric methods, first discussing those based on time series models, Capon's method and its variants, and then estimators based on the notions of sub-spaces. However, the book also deals with the traditional "analog" methods, now called non-parametric methods, which are still the most widely used in practical spectral analysis.
This title provides a broad overview of the different types of models used in advanced spatial analysis. The models concern spatial organization, location factors and spatial interaction patterns from both static and dynamic perspectives. Each chapter gives a broad overview of the subject, covering both theoretical developments and practical applications. The advantages of an interdisciplinary approach are illustrated in the way that the viewpoint of each of the individual disciplines are brought together when considering questions relevant to spatial analysis. The authors of the chapters come from a range of different disciplines (geography, economy, hydrology, ecology, etc.) and are specialists in their field. They use a range of methods and modeling tools developed in mathematics, statistics, artificial intelligence and physics.
How can a piano tuner obtain such high precision with no other measuring device than their own ears? How can a sequence of notes seem to rise continuously despite coming back periodically to the same notes? What are the possibilities and the limits of digital sound? These are a few examples of questions that are discussed in this book, which presents an overview on the nature of musical sounds, from their production by acoustic music instruments to synthesized sounds obtained with computers.
The topics that are treated include sound propagation, Fourier and time-frequency analysis, psychoacoustics, analog and digital signal processing theory, computer science and MP3 sound compression, and of course... music!
Fault tree analysis is an important technique in determining the safety and dependability of complex systems. Fault trees are used as a major tool in the study of system safety as well as in reliability and availability studies.
The basic methods - construction, logical analysis, probability evaluation and influence study - are described in this book. The following extensions of fault trees, non-coherent fault trees, fault trees with delay and multi-performance fault trees, are also explained. Traditional algorithms for fault tree analysis are presented, as well as more recent algorithms based on binary decision diagrams (BDD).