OECD

  • Anglais Vietnam

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    • 10 December 2009

    This publication presents the results of the first OECD investment policy review of Vietnam. It finds that the progress Vietnam has achieved in less than two decades in putting into place a legal framework and implementing policies that mobilise private investment, including international direct investment, to support economic growth and the prosperity of Vietnam´s citizens has been remarkable. Starting from a situation in which the economy was essentially closed to private and international investment, Vietnam is now considered to be one of the very attractive economies in the world for investment.

  • Anglais Zambia

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    • 20 March 2012

    OECD's review of investment policy in Zambia reviews the country's investment policy, investment promotion and facilitation, trade and competition policy, tax policy, corporate governance, policies for promoting responsible business conduct, infrastructure development and other aspects of the policy framework for investment.

  • OECD's comprehensive review of rural policy in Italy.  On average, rural regions in Italy have some of the highest GDP per capita among the OECD countries, yet unexploited potential remains. This analysis of rural Italy reveals heterogeneous economic conditions, an increasing elderly population and a diminished focus on environmental concerns. This suggests the need for a broader rural policy approach that reflects the changing demands upon rural resources and that considers other aspects of rurality including health, education and quality of life. 

  • Cette étude s'intéresse à la prévention du risque d'inondation de la Seine en Ile-de-France. Elle étudie l'impact qu'une inondaton majeure telle que celle produite en 1910 pourrait avoir sur le bien-être des citoyens, le fonctonnement de la métropole et l'économie. Elle propose des pistes d'améloration relative à la gouvernance et la prévention de ce risque majeur.

  • Damages to economic assets resulting from natural disasters have soared in the past fifteen years, and climate change models forecast intensified exposure to extreme weather in many OECD countries. This OECD review of risk management policies focuses on Japan, because the geography, topography and climate of its national territory subject it to serious natural hazards, especially seismic activity and typhoons. The report looks at Japan´s policies in the areas of monitoring, preparing for and responding to floods and earthquakes, seeking out and identifying good practices and areas where improvements could be made. The case studies consider several issues of particular interest to policy makers, such as how to take climate change into account for long term policy planning related to large scale floods, and Japan´s unique earthquake insurance scheme for damages whose probability and impact are hard to accurately assess.

  • Ce rapport analyse les évolutions des politiques agricoles intervenues au cours de la période 2006-08 dans sept économies : Afrique du Sud, Brésil, Chili, Chine, Inde, Russie et Ukraine. Cette période a été marquée par une hausse significative des prix mondiaux de la plupart des produits agricoles, mais pas de tous cependant. Face à la flambée des prix alimentaires, les pouvoirs publics ont mis en place différentes mesures : réductions tarifaires, restrictions à l´exportation, relèvement des prix minimums et contrôle des prix, subventions aux intrants, vente des stocks et transferts directs aux plus démunis. Par ailleurs, ils ont souvent choisi de développer les mécanismes de crédit bonifié et/ou de rééchelonnement de la dette, cherché à améliorer la mise en oeuvre et les performances des politiques agricoles, étendu plus largement les programmes d´assurance, et accéléré la réforme agraire. Le rapport comprend également une annexe statistique très complète, qui donne un large éventail d´informations contextuelles sur ces économies.

    Le rapport fournit les estimations du soutien accordé à l´agriculture entre 1995 et 2007 pour six des pays pris en compte (à l´exception de l´Inde), effectuées conformément à la méthode de mesure de l´OCDE récemment révisée. Ces chiffres permettent une comparaison cohérente de l´évolution du niveau et de la composition du soutien aux producteurs et à l´ensemble du secteur, tant entre les différentes économies émergentes qu´avec les pays de l´OCDE.

  • This report evaluates the education reform agenda of Kazakhstan - its feasibility and focus - by taking stock of present-day strengths and weaknesses of the secondary education system. The report also provides guidance on adjusting the reform implementation plans in line with international experiences and best practices regarding educational change, and consolidates much of the previously dispersed (national) data on primary and secondary schools in Kazakhstan into a common analytical base of evidence, validated by the education authorities.

    Chapter 1 of this report provides an overview of the country, it education system and reform plans. Subsequent chapters provide analysis of and recommendations on equity and effectiveness of schooling; assessment and evaluation practices; policies for teachers and principals; expenditure patterns and financing mechanisms; vocational education and training; and a summary of the recommendations.

  • Au cours des dix prochaines années, les marchés agricoles devraient continuer à manquer de dynamisme, la croissance chinoise ralentissant et les politiques relatives aux biocarburants étant moins influentes que par le passé. La croissance future de la production végétale devrait provenir principalement de l'augmentation des rendements, et les hausses de production de viande et produits laitiers à la fois de l'accroissement du cheptel et de meilleurs rendements. Les échanges agricoles devraient augmenter plus lentement, mais, par rapport à d'autres secteurs, demeurer moins sensible à la torpeur économique. Ces pressions sur la demande, l'offre et les échanges sont manifestes en Asie du Sud-Est, où ce rapport identifie des possibilités pour améliorer durablement la productivité agricole. On s'attend à ce que les prix réels de la plupart des produits restent stables ou diminuent.

  • L'Étude économique de l'OCDE pour l'Australie 2014 examine les récents développements économiques, politiques, et les perspectives et jette un regard plus détaillé sur l'amélioration des taxes et des transferts ; les relations fédérales-État (TBC).

  • China has continued to grow fast by international standards. While growth is gradually moderating as the population ages, GDP per capita remains on course to almost double between 2010 and 2020. As a result, the Chinese economy will remain the major driver of global growth for the foreseeable future. Notwithstanding the economy's impressive performance and unprecedented poverty reduction, imbalances have built up. China's growth has long been driven by capital accumulation, supported by high savings. However, the growth model has led to misallocation of capital and falling investment efficiency, and to excess capacity in some manufacturing industries and in the real estate sector. High enterprise investment has been financed by debt, fuelled by interest subsidies and implicit guarantees for state-owned enterprises and other public entities. Slowing growth implies lower profits for firms, and therefore greater pressure to improve efficiency. It also translates into slower growth of incomes and limits the fiscal resources available to make growth more inclusive. Income inequalities measured by the Gini index have declined but are still high. The urban-rural divide is large and the household registration system hinders labour movement to where it could be better used.
    This Economic Survey of China assesses the country's recent macroeconomic performance and proposes policy measures to promote higher-quality growth. Policy recommendations relate to how to improve corporate performance and enhance inclusiveness.
    SPECIAL FEATURES: BOOSTING FIRM PERFORMANCE AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP; ENHANCING INCLUSIVENESS

  • Economic growth has picked up since Abenomics was launched in 2013, and so has job creation. However, Japan faces serious demographic headwinds, as its population is projected to decline by a quarter over 2015-50, with the share over age 65 rising from 26% to almost 40%. Firms already face labour shortages. Population ageing also puts upward pressure on government spending. Gross government debt, which has risen to 219% of GDP, the highest ever recorded in the OECD area, continues to rise. Labour productivity is about a quarter below the top half of OECD countries despite Japan's high levels of human capital, R&D and business investment. Slowing productivity growth has been accompanied by increased income inequality and relative poverty. Gender gaps in employment and wages are relatively large. This Economic Survey of Japan assesses the country's recent macroeconomic performance and prospects, and offers recommendations to boost productivity and foster more inclusive growth. In particular, the expanding gap between leading and lagging firms should be narrowed by promoting business sector dynamism and entrepreneurship. Breaking down labour market dualism is a priority to bring about inclusive growth and raise productivity. Faster productivity and output growth, accompanied by measures to limit public spending growth and gradually increase government revenue, would help ensure fiscal sustainability.


    SPECIAL FEATURES: PRODUCTIVITY FOR INCLUSIVE GROWTH; FISCAL SUSTAINABILITY

  • This joint OECD-ILO publication provides guidance on how local and regional governments can foster business-education partnerships in apprenticeship programmes and other types of work-based learning, drawing on case studies across nine countries. There has been increasing interest in apprenticeships which combine on the job training with classroom-based study, providing a smooth transition from school to work. There are benefits to both individuals and employers from participating in apprenticeships, including increased productivity and job quality. Successful implementation is contingent on having a high level of employer engagement at the local level, notably in the design, development and delivery of programmes.

  • Growth in Colombia has been among the strongest in the region, reflecting the flexible exchange rate and inflation targeting monetary policy, and fiscal rules. The strong growth and welfare programmes to the most vulnerable groups have substantially reduced poverty. Lower taxes and fees on wages have brought more people to better quality formal jobs, thereby raising both productivity and inclusiveness. Productivity and job opportunities have also been enhanced by recent reforms facilitating the opening of business, obtaining construction permits, registering property and paying taxes. However, productivity growth is still low and the gap between rich and poor among the highest in Latin America. Informality and gender gaps remain high, and social mobility low. Years of armed conflict, stringent local regulations and distortions in the tax system have created disparities in productivity and access to basic services across regions. Further simplifying procedures for company registration and the affiliation of workers to social security, improving labour market programmes, expanding early childhood education, and raising education quality would boost inclusion, social mobility and living standards. Greater and more affordable child, elderly and disability care would open the job market to more women. Raising productivity will be fundamental to continued increases in living standards for all Colombians.


    SPECIAL FEATURES: PRODUCTIVITY; INCLUSIVE GROWTH

  • In 2017, the Royal Government of Cambodia published a new Social Protection Policy Framework (SPPF), providing an ambitious vision for a social protection system in which a comprehensive set of policies and institutions operate in sync with each other to sustainably reduce poverty and vulnerability.The Social Protection System Review of Cambodia prompts and answers a series of questions that are crucial for the implementation ofthe framework : How will emerging trends affect the needs for social protection, now and into the future? To what extent are Cambodia's social protection instruments able - or likely - to address current and future livelihood challenges? How does fiscal policy affect social protection objectives?
    This review provides a contribution to the ongoing policy dialogue on social protection, sustainable growth and poverty reduction. It includes four chapters. Chapter 1 is a forward-looking assessment of Cambodia's social protection needs. Chapter 2 maps the social protection sector and examines its adequacy. An investigation of the distributive impact of social protection and tax policy is undertaken in Chapter 3. The last chapter concludes with recommendations for policy strategies that could support the establishment of an inclusive social protection system in Cambodia, as envisaged by the SPPF.

  • Anglais Groundwater Allocation

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    • 24 October 2017

    Groundwater allocation determines who is able to use groundwater resources, how, when and where. It directly affects the value (economic, ecological, socio-cultural) that individuals and society obtain from groundwater, today and in the future. Building on the 2015 OECD publication Water Resources Allocation: Sharing Risks and Opportunities, this report focuses on groundwater and how its allocation can be improved in terms of economic efficiency, environmental effectiveness and social equity. Drawing on an analysis of groundwater's distinctive features and nine case studies of groundwater allocation in a range of countries, the report provides practical policy guidance for groundwater allocation in the form of a "health check". This health check can be used to assess the performance of current arrangements and manage the transition towards improved allocation.

  • The Environmental Performance Review programme of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) provides independent assessments of countries' progress in achieving their domestic and international environmental policy commitments, together with policy-relevant recommendations. The reviews are conducted to promote peer learning, enhance governments' accountability to each other and to the public, and to improve countries' environmental performance, individually and collectively. The OECD has been conducting these reviews since 1992, supported by a broad range of economic and environmental data. Each cycle of the Environmental Performance Reviews covers all OECD member countries and selected partner countries. The most recent reviews include: Colombia (2014), Spain (2015), Brazil (2015) and Chile (2016). The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) has promoted environmental reviews in Latin America and the Caribbean, in cooperation with the OECD, and has undertaken similar assessments in the states of Amazonas and Acre in Brazil.

    Part I. Progress toward sustainable development
    Chapter 1. Background and key environmental trends
    Chapter 2. Policy-making environment
    Chapter 3. Economy and the environment
    Chapter 4. Society and environment
    Chapter 5. International co-operation and commitments

    Part II. Environmental quality of life
    Chapter 6. Air quality management
    Chapter 7. Management of waste and chemicals
    Chapter 8. Water resources
    Chapter 9. Biodiversity

    Part III. Use of natural resources base
    Chapter 10. Farming and forestry
    Chapter 11. Fisheries
    Chapter 12. Mining sector


    Annex I: Selected Data

  • At the core of integrity is a human choice. Behavioural research reveals two determinants of integrity: the internal dynamics of how individuals make moral decisions and how these decisions are shaped and influenced by other people. This report describes how behavioural insights can help make integrity and anti-corruption policies more effective and efficient. It includes concrete policy applications and provides guidance for policy makers on how to use behavioural insights in designing integrity and anti-corruption policies.

  • Les Perspectives économiques de l'OCDE, publication semestrielle, présentent une analyse des grandes tendances économiques qui marqueront les deux années à venir. Les Perspectives économiques proposent un ensemble cohérent de projections concernant la production, l'emploi, les prix et balances des opérations courantes et budgétaires.

    Tous les pays membres de l'OCDE sont examinés ainsi que certains pays non membres. Cette édition comporte une évaluation générale, un chapitre spécial sur la résilience dans un contexte d'endettement élevé, un chapitre résumant les tendances économiques et fournissant des projections par pays et une annexe statistique.

  • Le Luxembourg affiche de solides performances économiques, grâce au dynamisme du secteur des services, à des politiques budgétaires saines et à une ouverture aux talents internationaux. Le rythme des créations d'emplois est soutenu et bénéficie non seulement aux résidents, mais aussi aux travailleurs transfrontaliers et aux migrants. Le secteur financier, très développé, fait l'objet d'une supervision satisfaisante, mais afin de réduire sa dépendance à l'égard du secteur financier, le gouvernement a préparé une stratégie pour une « troisième révolution industrielle » s'articulant autour des nouvelles technologies numériques et des énergies renouvelables.

    Pour offrir les compétences requises dans ces nouveaux secteurs il sera en conséquence important de continuer d'améliorer le système éducatif, en mettant l'accent sur la formation continue. Il faudrait faire en sorte que l'offre de compétences coïncide mieux avec les besoins du marché du travail. Cela supposerait de réorienter les politiques du marché du travail en mettant l'accent sur le financement de programmes de formation visant à faciliter le redéploiement de la main d'oeuvre plutôt que sur le soutien à la création d'emplois. Le Luxembourg bénéficie de la présence des immigrés, qui sont un atout pour l'économie du pays. Des difficultés d'intégration subsistent toutefois, en particulier en ce qui concerne les personnes issues de pays n'appartenant pas à l'UE, qui sont plus souvent au chômage. La maîtrise de la langue étant une condition préalable indispensable à une intégration réussie, l'offre publique de cours de langues devrait être encore développée. Des réformes de l'enseignement ont été entreprises pour rendre la scolarité plus équitable, aussi pour les enfants d'immigrés. Pour favoriser l'égalité hommes-femmes, le Luxembourg s'emploie à faciliter l'accès aux services de garde d'enfants et à rendre la fiscalité plus favorable à la parité.

    THÈMES SPÉCIAUX : RENFORCER LES COMPÉTENCES ; AMÉLIORER L'INTÉGRATION DES IMMIGRANTS

  • Anglais Economic Policy Reforms 2013

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    • 15 February 2013

    Going for Growth is the OECD´s annual report highlighting developments in structural policies in OECD countries. It identifies structural reform priorities to boost real income for each OECD country and key emerging economies (Brazil, China, India, Indonesia, Russia and South Africa). The Going for Growth analysis also regularly takes stock of reform implementation in all the countries covered.
    This report provides internationally comparable indicators that enable countries to assess their economic performance and structural policies in a wide range of areas. Each issue also has several thematic studies.

  • Anglais Starting Strong III

    Collective

    • Oecd
    • 16 December 2011

    Early childhood education and care (ECEC) can bring a wide range of benefits - for children, parents and society at large. However, these benefits are conditional on "quality". Expanding access to services without attention to quality will not deliver good outcomes for children or long-term productivity benefits for society.
    This new publication focuses on quality issues: it aims to define quality and outlines five policy levers that can enhance it in ECEC. In addition, it provides busy policy makers with practical tools such as research briefs, international comparisons, country examples, self-reflection sheets, etc. in order to successfully implement these policy levers.

  • The principles of sustainable development play an integral role in making development assistance work at the level of policies, plans and programmes. In response to the  Paris Declaration call to "... develop and apply common approaches for `Strategic Environmental Assessment´ at sector and national levels" among donors and partners, the Guidance on Applying Strategic Environmental Assessment was endorsed in 2006 by members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee, representatives of developing countries receiving aid, the United Nations Development Programme, the United Nations Environment Programme, the World Bank and many other agencies. Since then, a growing number of countries at all levels of development have legislation or regulations prescribing the application of Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)

  • Ce rapport est le premier examen environnemental du Brésil. Il évalue les progrès accomplis par le Brésil en termes de développement durable et d'économie verte, avec un accent sur la conservation de la biodiversité et l'utilisation durable des zones protégées. Les examens environnementaux de l'OCDE sont des évaluations indépendantes des progrès accomplis par les pays pour tenir leurs engagements environnementaux nationaux et internationaux. Ces examens ont pour objectif de favoriser les échanges de bonnes pratiques et l'apprentissage entre pairs, d'aider les gouvernements à rendre compte de leurs politiques auprès des autres pays et de l'opinion publique et d'améliorer la performance environnementale, individuelle et collective, des pays. Les analyses s'appuient sur un large éventail de données économiques et environnementales et contiennent également des recommandations de politique publique. Au cours de chaque cycle d'examens environnementaux, l'OCDE passe en revue l'ensemble de ses pays membres ainsi que certains pays partenaires. Les derniers pays examinés sont la Pologne (2015), l'Espagne (2015) et les Pays-Bas (2015).

  • This 2016 OECD Economic Survey of the European Union examines recent economic developments, policies and prospects. The special chapter cover: Priorities for completing the Single Market.

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