Relative entropy has played a significant role in various fields of mathematics and physics as the quantum version of the Kullback-Leibler divergence in classical theory. Many variations of relative entropy have been introduced so far with applications to quantum information and related subjects. Typical examples are three different classes, called the standard, the maximal, and the measured f-divergences, all of which are defined in terms of (operator) convex functions f on (0,8) and have respective mathematical and information theoretical backgrounds. The a-Rényi relative entropy and its new version called the sandwiched a-Rényi relative entropy have also been useful in recent developments of quantum information.
In the first half of this monograph, the different types of quantum f-divergences and the Rényi-type divergences mentioned above in the general von Neumann algebra setting are presented for study. While quantum information has been developing mostly in the finite-dimensional setting, it is widely believed that von Neumann algebras provide the most suitable framework in studying quantum information and related subjects. Thus, the advance of quantum divergences in von Neumann algebras will be beneficial for further development of quantum information.
Quantum divergences are functions of two states (or more generally, two positive linear functionals) on a quantum system and measure the difference between the two states. They are often utilized to address such problems as state discrimination, error correction, and reversibility of quantum operations. In the second half of the monograph, the reversibility/sufficiency theory for quantum operations (quantum channels) between von Neumann algebras via quantum f-divergences is explained, thus extending and strengthening Petz' previous work.
For the convenience of the reader, an appendix including concise accounts of von Neumann algebras is provided.
The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures.
This monograph focuses on the mathematical and numerical analysis of simplicial partitions and the finite element method. This active area of research has become an essential part of physics and engineering, for example in the study of problems involving heat conduction, linear elasticity, semiconductors, Maxwell's equations, Einstein's equations and magnetic and gravitational fields.
These problems require the simulation of various phenomena and physical fields over complicated structures in three (and higher) dimensions. Since not all structures can be decomposed into simpler objects like d-dimensional rectangular blocks, simplicial partitions are important. In this book an emphasis is placed on angle conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the finite element method for elliptic PDEs with given boundary conditions.
It is aimed at a general mathematical audience who is assumed to be familiar with only a few basic results from linear algebra, geometry, and mathematical and numerical analysis.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book comprehensively discusses
essential aspects of terminal ballistics, combining experimental data,
numerical simulations and analytical modeling. Employing a unique approach to
numerical simulations as a measure of sensitivity for the major physical
parameters, the new edition also includes the following features: new figures
to better illustrate the problems discussed; improved explanations for the
equation of state of a solid and for the cavity expansion process; new data
concerning the Kolsky bar test; and a discussion of analytical modeling for the
hole diameter in a thin metallic plate impacted by a shaped charge jet. The
section on thick concrete targets penetrated by rigid projectiles has now been
expanded to include the latest findings, and two new sections have been added:
/> one on a novel approach to the perforation of thin concrete slabs, and one on
testing the failure of thin metallic plates using a hydrodynamic ram.
From acute respiratory diseases to chronic lung conditions, pulmonology is a vital area of clinical medicine. Due to a wide array of respiratory diseases, clinical presentation of pulmonary conditions can be complex and oftentimes challenging. In addition to recognizing common characteristics of lung diseases, identifying unusual clinical presentation of pulmonary conditions remains an important educational experience. This concise and easy-to-read title provides that experience in practical context, using a case-based system of learning where a unique case is presented and discussed and questions are provided to challenge the learner and reinforce the transmission of knowledge. Challenging Cases in Pulmonology is not an exhaustive review but rather focuses on common and important problems, with emphasis on evaluation and treatment. The book offers 16 chapters consisting of two or more cases followed by five to ten multiple choice questions. A valuable resource for pulmonologists, allergists, primary care physicians, internal medicine, fellows in allergy and pulmonology, and residents in training, this practical title will also be of interest to nurses, physician assistants, and medical students studying pulmonology. Challenging Cases in Pulmonology complements two previously published case-based titles edited by Dr. Mahmoudi: Challenging Cases in Allergy and Immunology (Humana Press, 2009) and Challenging Cases in Allergic and Immunologic Diseases of the Skin (Springer, 2010).
The Light Metals series is widely recognized as the definitive source of information on new developments in aluminum production technology. This new volume presents proceedings from 2013's Light Metal Symposia, covering the latest research and technologies on such areas as alumina and bauxite, aluminum reduction technology, electrode technology for aluminum production, cast shop for aluminum production, aluminum processing aluminum alloys, and cost affordable titanium IV. It also includes papers from a keynote presentation session discussing impurities in the aluminum supply chain are also included.
This volume contains papers presented in the third international symposium titled Fatigue of Materials: Advances and Emergences in Understanding held during the Materials Science and Technology 2014 meeting. The book contains contributions from engineers, technologists, and scientists from academia, research laboratories, and industries. The papers are divided into six topical areas:
Session 1: Aluminum Alloys
Session 2: Ferrous Materials I
Session 3: Ferrous Materials II
Session 4: Composite Materials
Session 5: Advanced Materials
Session 6: Modeling
The papers cover a broad spectrum of topics that represent the truly diverse nature of the subject of fatigue as it relates to the world of materials.
This book presents a collection of papers presented at the 3rd World Congress on Integrated Computational Materials Engineering (ICME), a specialty conference organized by The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS). This meeting convened ICME stakeholders to examine topics relevant to the global advancement of ICME as an engineering discipline.
The papers presented in these proceedings are divided into six sections: (1) ICME Applications; (2) ICME Building Blocks; (3) ICME Success Stories and Applications (4) Integration of ICME Building Blocks: Multi-scale Modeling; (5) Modeling, Data and Infrastructure Tools, and (6) Process Optimization. .
These papers are intended to further the global implementation of ICME, broaden the variety of applications to which ICME is applied, and ultimately help industry design and produce new materials more efficiently and effectively.
With impending and burgeoning societal issues affecting both developed and emerging nations, the global engineering community has a responsibility and an opportunity to truly make a difference and contribute. The papers in this collection address what materials and resources are integral to meeting basic societal sustainability needs in critical areas of energy, transportation, housing, and recycling.
Contributions focus on the engineering answers for cost-effective, sustainable pathways; the strategies for effective use of engineering solutions; and the role of the global engineering community. Authors share perspectives on the major engineering challenges that face our world today; identify, discuss, and prioritize engineering solution needs; and establish how these fit into developing global-demand pressures for materials and human resources.
This book reviews the state of the art in algorithmic approaches addressing the practical challenges that arise with hyperspectral image analysis tasks, with a focus on emerging trends in machine learning and image processing/understanding. It presents advances in deep learning, multiple instance learning, sparse representation based learning, low-dimensional manifold models, anomalous change detection, target recognition, sensor fusion and super-resolution for robust multispectral and hyperspectral image understanding. It presents research from leading international experts who have made foundational contributions in these areas. The book covers a diverse array of applications of multispectral/hyperspectral imagery in the context of these algorithms, including remote sensing, face recognition and biomedicine. This book would be particularly beneficial to graduate students and researchers who are taking advanced courses in (or are working in) the areas of image analysis, machine learning and remote sensing with multi-channel optical imagery. Researchers and professionals in academia and industry working in areas such as electrical engineering, civil and environmental engineering, geosciences and biomedical image processing, who work with multi-channel optical data will find this book useful.
This book offers a timely report on methods for risk assessment procedures for dams, with a special emphasis on dams with small storage dimensions. It starts by introducing all important definitions relating to dams, dam safety, such as the most common failure modes, and risks. In turn, it describes in detail the most important evaluation procedures for various failure modes such as piping, flood, earthquake and stability are described in this chapter. Consequence assessment procedures, together with the different steps of the risk evaluation process, are analyzed, providing a guide on how to identify the appropriate failure mode for the examined dam and setting up the appropriate safety plan. The book introduces the most common methods for predicting peak breach discharge, analyzing some relevant case studies. Upon comparing the findings obtained with the different methods, the book concludes with some general suggestions and ideas for future developments. This book fills an important gap between theoretical works and real-life problems being investigating in practical research studies on dam safety and risk management. It provides readers with the necessary knowledge on risk analysis and shows how to apply this in practice to carry out dam safety studies. It offers practical guidelines to set up risk assessment procedures for different failure modes and predicting failure parameters such as failure time, peak breach discharge and breach width.
This book offers comprehensive information on the new and rapidly evolving science of identifying and targeting senescent cells, and on the exciting prospect of new diagnostic and therapeutic opportunities for stopping, and even reversing, the progression of disease and the deterioration of the human body due to ageing. According to recent United Nations data, by 2050 one in six people worldwide will be older than age 65, with peaks rising to one in four people in Europe and North America. Remarkably, the number of persons aged 80 years or older is expected to triple, from 143 million in 2019 to 426 million in 2050. First documented in the 1960s, the concept of cellular senescence as an underlying cause of ageing has been established in the course of the last decade. Using genetically engineered mouse models, researchers have demonstrated that the selective elimination of senescent cells can block and even reverse a number of age-related dysfunctions and pathologies, promoting both better health and longer life in the elderly. These include cardiovascular diseases; neurological disorders; type 1 and type 2 diabetes; inflammatory diseases; fibrosis; geriatric syndromes; chronic diseases resulting in organ dysfunction; the integrity of the musculoskeletal system; and cancer. Some senolytic agents have already progressed into trials. These include UBX0101 for the treatment of osteoarthritis (now in phase II), a cocktail of dasatinib and quercetin for the management of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and chronic kidney disease, and ABT-263 in combination with senescence-inducing chemotherapies for the treatment of advanced solid tumours. In addition, the book discusses pathways to early phase clinical trials and translational approaches in medicine and ageing, highlighting new opportunities as well as current limitations, challenges and alternatives. Given its scope, it will benefit a broad audience of advanced educators, researchers, graduate students and practitioners.
This proceedings book presents selected papers from the 10th international conference on the "Economies of the Balkan and Eastern European Countries in the Changing World" (EBEEC), held in Warsaw, Poland, in May 2018. In addition to discussing the latest research, it includes papers adopting a wide variety of theoretical approaches and empirical methodologies and covering a number of key areas, such as international economics, economic growth, finance and banking, insurance, healthcare, agriculture, labor and energy markets, innovation, management and marketing. In addition, the authors discuss policy instruments and best practices for the region. This book appeals to scholars and students in fields of economics and finance as well as practitioners interested in the development of the region.
This book tells the story of one nation's sustained efforts to steer its economy toward low carbon technologies and to define national and global pathways for mitigating climate change. Drawing on a long career in Germany's energy sector, and on subsequent academic research, the book reveals the weaknesses of and critical trade-offs in Germany's bold energy transition plan - the Energiewende - and explores their causes.
Its goal is to provide insights to help policymakers and energy managers keep some of the problems that have plagued the Energiewende at bay, and to instead explore avenues that are more likely to succeed. While such insights cannot solve the problem of socio-technical change overnight, they do reveal alternative transition pathways that keep climate goals clearly in sight, even if they are pursued with a bit less exuberance and a bit more humility. The book is addressed to academic, professional, and political readers alike.
This book focuses on the emerging additive manufacturing technology and its applications beyond state-of-the-art, fibre-reinforced thermoplastics. It also discusses the development of a hybrid, integrated process that combines additive and subtractive operations in a single-step platform, allowing CAD-to-Part production with freeform shapes using long or continuous fibre-reinforced thermoplastics. The book covers the entire value chain of this next-generation technology, from part design and materials composition to transformation stages, product evaluation, and end-of-life studies.
Moreover, it addresses the following engineering issues:
o Design rules for hybrid additive manufacturing;
o Thermoplastic compounds for high-temperature and -strength applications;
o Advanced extrusion heads and process concepts;
o Hybridisation strategies;
o Software ecosystems for hAM design, pre-processing, process planning, emulating and multi-axis processing;
o 3D path generators for hAM based on a multi-objective optimisation algorithm that matches the recent curved adaptive slicing method with a new transversal scheme;
o hAM parameters, real-time monitoring and closed-loop control;
o Multiparametric nondestructive testing (NDT) tools customised for FRTP AM parts;
o Sustainable manufacturing processes validated by advanced LCA/LCC models.
This book provides an in-depth assessment of the modern geopolitics of hydrocarbon resources in the territorial waters of the Eastern Mediterranean, highlighting the current conflicts and disputes in the maritime territories of Egypt, Israel, Lebanon, Cyprus, and Turkey. Further, these geopolitical aspects are analyzed within the broader context of the tensions between and competing interests of big powers such as the USA, Russia, and the European Union.To what extent can major powers influence regional actors and guide them toward rational outcomes? To what extent can economic self-interest contain nationalistic impulses? What are the most practical and sustainable ways of promoting win-win scenarios? This book focuses on such questions and presents a number of clear policy guidelines to help the conflict-laden Eastern Mediterranean region gain a more peaceful and sustainable footing for the greater benefit of the peoples living there.
This book presents the outcomes of recent endeavors that will contribute to significant advances in the areas of communication design, fashion design, interior design and product design, music and musicology, as well as overlapping areas. Gathering the proceedings of the 7th EIMAD conference, held on May 14-15, 2020, and organized by the School of Applied Arts, Campus da Talagueira, in Castelo Branco, Portugal, it proposes new theoretical perspectives and practical research directions in design and music, while also discussing teaching practices and some areas of intersection. It addresses strategies for communication and culture in a global, digital world, that take into account key individual and societal needs.
This book presents an original approach to the study of psychiatry that is based on a justified epistemological position, which demands that both the natural and the human/social sciences are necessary in developing our understanding. Psychiatry as a medical specialism was constructed in the nineteenth century through the interplay of both the natural sciences and the human/social sciences. This interplay has created a hybrid discipline that spans biological and socio-cultural-historical domains, which has raised challenges for its understanding and research. This book focuses on one of the principal challenges - how can we explore mental symptoms and mental disorders as complexes of neurobiology on the one hand and meaning on the other?The chapters in this book, dedicated to Germán E Berrios, founder of the Cambridge school of psychopathology, tackles distinctive aspects of psychopathology or related areas. By means of a combination of approaches, chapters seek to unfold another element in our understanding of this field as well as raise new directions for its further study. Rethinking Psychopathology is a valuable resource for clinical psychologists and psychotherapists, psychological researchers, historians of psychology, cultural psychologists, critical psychologists, social scientists, philosophers of psychology, and philosophers of science.
This book provides a groundbreaking introduction to the likelihood inference for correlated survival data via the hierarchical (or h-) likelihood in order to obtain the (marginal) likelihood and to address the computational difficulties in inferences and extensions. The approach presented in the book overcomes shortcomings in the traditional likelihood-based methods for clustered survival data such as intractable integration. The text includes technical materials such as derivations and proofs in each chapter, as well as recently developed software programs in R ("frailtyHL"), while the real-world data examples together with an R package, "frailtyHL" in CRAN, provide readers with useful hands-on tools. Reviewing new developments since the introduction of the h-likelihood to survival analysis (methods for interval estimation of the individual frailty and for variable selection of the fixed effects in the general class of frailty models) and guiding future directions, the book is of interest to researchers in medical and genetics fields, graduate students, and PhD (bio) statisticians.
'Which test should I apply?' During the many years of working with ecologists, biologists and other environmental scientists, this is probably the question that the authors of this book hear the most often. The answer is always the same and along the lines of 'What are your underlying questions?', 'What do you want to show?'. The answers to these questions provide the starting point for a detailed discussion on the ecological background and purpose of the study. This then gives the basis for deciding on the most appropriate analytical approach. Therefore, a better start ing point for an ecologist is to avoid the phrase 'test' and think in terms of 'analy sis'. A test refers to something simple and unified that gives a clear answer in the form of a p-value: something rarely appropriate for ecological data. In practice, one has to apply a data exploration, check assumptions, validate the models, per haps apply a series of methods, and most importantly, interpret the results in terms of the underlying ecology and the ecological questions being investigated. Ecology is a quantitative science trying to answer difficult questions about the complex world we live in. Most ecologists are aware of these complexities, but few are fully equipped with the statistical sophistication and understanding to deal with them.
Both humanitarian and commercial considerations have spurred intensive search for methods to reduce the time and cost required to develop new therapies. The identification and use of surrogate endpoints, i.e., measures that can replace or supplement other endpoints in evaluations of experimental treatments or other interventions, is a general strategy that has stimulated both enthusiasm and skepticism. Surrogate endpoints are useful when they can be measured earlier, more conveniently, or more frequently than the "true" endpoints of primary interest. Regulatory agencies around the globe, particularly in the United States, Europe, and Japan, are introducing provisions and policies relating to the use of surrogate endpoints in registration studies. But how can one establish the adequacy of a surrogate? What kind of evidence is needed, and what statistical methods portray that evidence most appropriately?
This book offers a balanced account on this controversial topic. The text presents major developments of the last couple of decades, together with a unified, meta-analytic framework within which surrogates can be evaluated from several angles. Methodological development is coupled with perspectives on various therapeutic areas. Academic views are juxtaposed with standpoints of scientists working in the biopharmaceutical industry as well as of colleagues from the regulatory authorities.
Tomasz Burzykowski is Assistant Professor of Biostatistics at the Limburgs Universitair Centrum in Belgium. Dr. Burzykowski has published methodological work on the analysis of survey data, meta-analyses of clinical trials, and validation of surrogate endpoints. He is a co-author of numerous papers applying statistical methods to clinical data in different disease areas (cancer, cardiovascular diseases, dermatology, orthodontics).
Geert Molenberghs is Professor of Biostatistics at the Limburgs Universitair Centrum in Belgium. Dr. Molenberghs published methodological work on surrogate markers in clinical trials, categorical data, longitudinal data analysis, and on the analysis of non-response in clinical and epidemiological studies. He serves as Joint Editor for Applied Statistics (2001-2004) and is President of the International Biometric Society (2004-2005). He was elected Fellow of the American Statistical Association and received the Guy Medal in Bronze from the Royal Statistical Society.
Marc Buyse founded the International Drug Development Institute in 1991. He is Past President of the International Society for Clinical Biostatistics, Past President of the Quetelet Society, and Past Board Member of the Society for Clinical Trials. He is currently the Executive Director of IDDI (International Drug Development Institute) and Associate Professor of biostatistics at the Limburgs Universitair Centrum, Center for Statistics, Diepenbeek, Belgium. He has published extensively in the fields of biostatistics and oncology. His research interests include meta-analysis, surrogate endpoints, statistical detection of fraud, and the design and statistical analysis of clinical trials.
From the reviews:
"A strength of this book is its comprehensive and up-to-date presentation of issues pertinent to the evaluation of surrgoate endpoints...This book makes an important contribution to the clinical trials literature..." Journal of Biopharmaceutical Statistics, 2006
"Many of the chapters deal with real-life data examples and studies involving surrogate outcomes, many written by authors who were directly involved in these studies...The editors have written nice background sections...until a more concise manuscript on this topic is written, this book will remain the most important resource for biostatisticians and researchers in this area." Debajyoti Sinha for the Journal of the American Statistical Association, December 2006
"This book is a reflection of the ongoing debate on the definition and use of surrogate markers...I see the book as an invitation to join the debate. There is much work to be done and reading the book might inspire many to participate. It will be useful for researchers in this and related fields, such as joint modeling of longitudinal and survival data and multivariate meta-analysis. The book is well organized, is a pleasure to read, and is very well documented with up-to-date references." Hans C. Van Houwelingen for Bioometrics, September 2006
In the study of civil society and social movements, most cases are based in Western Europe and North America. These two areas of the world have similar histories and political ideals and structures in common which in turn, affect the structure of its civil society. In studying civil society in Asia, a different understanding of history, politics, and society is needed. The region's long traditions of centralized, authoritarian states buttressed by Confucian and in some cases Communist ideologies may render this concept irrelevant.
The chapters in this international volume cover most of the areas and countries traditionally defined as belonging to East Asia: Japan, Taiwan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Singapore and China. The case studies included in this volume confront the utility of using the Western concept of civil society, represented in its most active form - social movements - to think about East Asia popular politics. Along with providing an array of important case studies of social movements in East Asia, the introduction, chapters and conclusion in the book take up three major theoretical questions:
the effect of the East Asian cultural, social and institutional context upon the mobilization, activities and outcomes of social movements in that region,
the role of social movements in larger transformative processes,
utility of Western social movement concepts in explaining social movements in East Asia.
This book will be of interest to two major groups of readers, those who study East Asia and those who pursue social movements and civil society, as well as politics more generally.