OECD

  • This review of India's investment policy finds that India has made tremendous progress in building a policy environment to encourage investment. As a result, the country´s economy is growing more rapidly and FDI inflows have accelerated impressively. However, investment remains insufficient to meet India´s needs, particularly in infrastructure. Current efforts to strengthen and liberalise the regulatory framework for investment need to be intensified. India´s well-developed economic legislation should be implemented at an accelerated pace both at national level and right across India´s States and Union Territories.
    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: India charts India's progress in developing an effective policy framework to promote investment for development, especially since the acceleration of economic reform from 1991 onward. It focuses on policies towards investment, trade, competition and other elements of the business environment. Finally, it outlines some of the challenges of implementing national-level reforms at state level.

  • Greater integration into the world economy and important policy reforms have resulted in Brazil, China, India and South Africa becoming major actors in the globalisation process, with impressive results in terms of economic growth, social development and poverty reduction. But the benefits of stronger growth have not always been shared equally and income inequality has remained at very high levels.  Existing evidence suggests that the evolution of the distribution of income in these four countries is the result of many forces. These include demographic change, migration, unequal access to education, informal employment, existing regulations and their enforcement, social norms and cultural legacy. These forces are often interlinked and reinforce one another. However, as employment is the primary source of income for most households, understanding the impact of labour market outcomes is crucial.   This book focuses on the role of growth and employment/unemployment developments in explaining recent income inequality trends in Brazil, China, India and South Africa, and discusses the roles played by labour market and social policies in both shaping and addressing these inequalities. It includes the papers presented at the joint OECD and European Union High-Level Conference on Inequalities in Emerging Economies held in Paris in May 2010. This work is part of OECD´s ongoing dialogue and co-operation with non-member economies around the world.

  • The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 90 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.
    The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.  These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.  The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. "Fishing expeditions" are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.
    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction´s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework.  Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined - Phase 1 plus Phase 2 - reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.
    All review reports are published once approved by the Global Forum and they thus represent agreed Global Forum reports.
    For more information on the work of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes, and for copies of the published review reports, please visit www.oecd.org/tax/transparency

  • OECD countries still dominate the world economy, but their share of world trade dropped from 73% in 1992 to 64% in 2005, and some of the world´s most important economies are not members of the OECD. Foremost among these are the so-called BRIICS: Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa.

    This book analyses key elements of the trade performance of the BRIICS in relation to the rest of the world, focusing on trade and other policies influencing that performance. Developments in global trade policy are reviewed, notably the impact of preferential trade agreements on the multilateral system and patterns of world trade are described using both indices that reveal networks of trading relations and more standard modeling results.
    As well as the global analysis, the book also presents a separate chapter for each of the BRIICS, examining the key development and trade issues in each of the six countries over the past few years.

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