Entreprise, économie & droit

  • Préface d'Alexandre Ziegler, ambassadeur de France en Inde.

    "Quoique l'on dise de l'Inde, on aura toujours raison, d'une manière ou d'une autre." C'est le paradoxe sur lequel s'ouvre ce guide de la négociation. Un paradoxe qui résume, à lui se

  • The present volume offers to the reader a multi-faceted dialogue between noted experts from two major agricultural countries, both founding members of the Word Trade Organisation, each one with different stakes in the great globalisation game: France, the world's second-ranking exporter of agricultural products and headquarters of a number of very active agro-business companies; and India, crossing the one billion population mark while emerging from its traditional protectionism, and legitimately concerned about preserving the interests of its huge farming community and not falling victim to the profit logic of the multinational corporations. After providing the recent historical background of agricultural policies in India and France, the contributors address burning issues related to market and regulation, food security and food safety, the expected benefits from the WTO and the genuine problems raised by the new forms of international trade in agriculture, including the sensitive question of intellectual property rights in bio-technologies. Whatever the differences between the two countries, and eventually their conflict of interests, this informed volume underlines the necessity of moving beyond the North-South divide, in order to address the real challenges of the future; a fair global order in a sector vital for the world, the multi-functionality of agriculture, the access for all to secure and safe food, the preservation of common goods and the ethical dimension of science and technology.

  •     Avec la mise en oeuvre de politiques économiques d´inspiration libérale au cours des années 1990, l´Inde est devenue un des acteurs de la globalisation et un des principaux pays émergents. Pour accompagner et favoriser cette évolution, le système f

  • This review of India's investment policy finds that India has made tremendous progress in building a policy environment to encourage investment. As a result, the country´s economy is growing more rapidly and FDI inflows have accelerated impressively. However, investment remains insufficient to meet India´s needs, particularly in infrastructure. Current efforts to strengthen and liberalise the regulatory framework for investment need to be intensified. India´s well-developed economic legislation should be implemented at an accelerated pace both at national level and right across India´s States and Union Territories.
    OECD Investment Policy Reviews: India charts India's progress in developing an effective policy framework to promote investment for development, especially since the acceleration of economic reform from 1991 onward. It focuses on policies towards investment, trade, competition and other elements of the business environment. Finally, it outlines some of the challenges of implementing national-level reforms at state level.

  • Greater integration into the world economy and important policy reforms have resulted in Brazil, China, India and South Africa becoming major actors in the globalisation process, with impressive results in terms of economic growth, social development and poverty reduction. But the benefits of stronger growth have not always been shared equally and income inequality has remained at very high levels.  Existing evidence suggests that the evolution of the distribution of income in these four countries is the result of many forces. These include demographic change, migration, unequal access to education, informal employment, existing regulations and their enforcement, social norms and cultural legacy. These forces are often interlinked and reinforce one another. However, as employment is the primary source of income for most households, understanding the impact of labour market outcomes is crucial.   This book focuses on the role of growth and employment/unemployment developments in explaining recent income inequality trends in Brazil, China, India and South Africa, and discusses the roles played by labour market and social policies in both shaping and addressing these inequalities. It includes the papers presented at the joint OECD and European Union High-Level Conference on Inequalities in Emerging Economies held in Paris in May 2010. This work is part of OECD´s ongoing dialogue and co-operation with non-member economies around the world.

  • The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by over 90 jurisdictions which participate in the work of the Global Forum on an equal footing.
    The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.  These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004, which has been incorporated in the UN Model Tax Convention.  The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. "Fishing expeditions" are not authorised, but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.
    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction´s legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework.  Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined - Phase 1 plus Phase 2 - reviews. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.
    All review reports are published once approved by the Global Forum and they thus represent agreed Global Forum reports.
    For more information on the work of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes, and for copies of the published review reports, please visit www.oecd.org/tax/transparency

  • OECD countries still dominate the world economy, but their share of world trade dropped from 73% in 1992 to 64% in 2005, and some of the world´s most important economies are not members of the OECD. Foremost among these are the so-called BRIICS: Brazil, Russia, India, Indonesia, China and South Africa.

    This book analyses key elements of the trade performance of the BRIICS in relation to the rest of the world, focusing on trade and other policies influencing that performance. Developments in global trade policy are reviewed, notably the impact of preferential trade agreements on the multilateral system and patterns of world trade are described using both indices that reveal networks of trading relations and more standard modeling results.
    As well as the global analysis, the book also presents a separate chapter for each of the BRIICS, examining the key development and trade issues in each of the six countries over the past few years.

  • Aujourd'hui, plus de la moitié des 500 plus grandes entreprises mondiales ont délocalisé la majeure partie de leurs services informatiques en Inde et Microsoft a même installé son plus grand centre de recherche informatique à Hyderabad. L'Inde est passée du statut de pays parmi les plus pauvres de la planète, à celui d'acteur majeur et incontournable dans les nouvelles technologies. Ignoré il y a encore quelques années, son entrée fracassante avec les rachats d'Arcelor ou encore de Jaguar et de Land Rover a interpellé beaucoup d'Européens... Qu'elle est loin l'image du Maharadjah sur le dos d'un éléphant, ou encore du Yogi assis sur des clous en train de charmer un cobra. L'Inde, avec ses 18 % de la population mondiale, forme le deuxième groupe de consommateurs potentiels du monde et d'après de nombreux économistes, sa jeunesse va devenir rapidement un moteur économique mondial dans les années à venir. Au vu de ces chiffres et de cette croissance fulgurante, il était grand temps qu'un ouvrage vienne nous donner les clés du " Savoir-être " avec les Indiens. C'est donc chose faite... Que ce livre soit un outil et qu'il vous aide à mieux travailler avec vos filiales, vos partenaires ou encore à conquérir de nouveaux marchés. Bonne lecture...

  • Universitaire, stratège, gourou du management, consultant, expert international, conférencier... Durant toute sa carrière, Coimbatore Krishnarao Prahalad s´est intéressé à la stratégie et au management des entreprises, en général, et des firmes multinationales, en particulier. Cette réflexion s´est traduite par un travail important et foisonnant aux contributions nombreuses, difficiles à classer par ordre d´importance. Prahalad a non seulement approfondi et renouvelé la réflexion par rapport à des concepts centraux en stratégie (intention stratégique, variété stratégique, diversification...), mais a aussi produit de nouveaux termes qui lui restent associés : « logique dominante » (avec Bettis), « compétence clé » (core competence) (avec Hamel), « co-création » (avec Ramaswamy), « bas de la pyramide » (bottom of the pyramid)... Ces termes diffusés dans le monde académique ont également donné lieu à des publications à destination du grand public qui les ont fait passer dans le langage courant. Mais les idées de Prahalad ont dépassé le stade des publications puisqu´elles ont été mises en pratique dans les entreprises, ce qui rend sa pensée omniprésente aussi bien dans le monde des praticiens que dans le monde académique. Face à cette pensée foisonnante, le choix a été fait ici de sélectionner, parmi les travaux de Prahalad, ceux qui présentent plus particulièrement une orientation en management international et de ne pas détailler ceux situés exclusivement dans le champ de la stratégie (comme le concept de core competence). Ces travaux ont été rassemblés autour de deux grands thèmes : le premier traite de l´articulation entre dimension globale et dimension locale dans les firmes multinationales (FMN), tandis que le second aborde les recherches consacrées aux firmes multinationales à l´épreuve des marchés émergents. Ils s´inscrivent dans la problématique générale suivante : comment les entreprises peuvent-elles rester compétitives dans un environnement international en mutation ? Cette question générale semble en même temps symboliser la pensée d´un homme qui a toujours cherché à provoquer et à obliger les individus à penser au-delà de leur cadre habituel. Prahalad apparaît comme l´homme qui repousse les frontières, les frontières de l´entreprise et les frontières du business, en intégrant pleinement la dimension internationale dans sa réflexion. Son oeuvre, même si elle a fait et fait toujours l´objet de critiques, est celle d´un homme visionnaire qui, au-delà des meilleures pratiques (best practices), a recherché les pratiques futures (next practices), incitant ses contemporains à renouveler leur pensée et leurs idées et ainsi à innover en sortant des schémas traditionnels.