OECD

  • Cette étude s'intéresse à la prévention du risque d'inondation de la Seine en Ile-de-France. Elle étudie l'impact qu'une inondaton majeure telle que celle produite en 1910 pourrait avoir sur le bien-être des citoyens, le fonctonnement de la métropole et l'économie. Elle propose des pistes d'améloration relative à la gouvernance et la prévention de ce risque majeur.

  • This report evaluates the education reform agenda of Kazakhstan - its feasibility and focus - by taking stock of present-day strengths and weaknesses of the secondary education system. The report also provides guidance on adjusting the reform implementation plans in line with international experiences and best practices regarding educational change, and consolidates much of the previously dispersed (national) data on primary and secondary schools in Kazakhstan into a common analytical base of evidence, validated by the education authorities.

    Chapter 1 of this report provides an overview of the country, it education system and reform plans. Subsequent chapters provide analysis of and recommendations on equity and effectiveness of schooling; assessment and evaluation practices; policies for teachers and principals; expenditure patterns and financing mechanisms; vocational education and training; and a summary of the recommendations.

  • Ce rapport analyse les évolutions des politiques agricoles intervenues au cours de la période 2006-08 dans sept économies : Afrique du Sud, Brésil, Chili, Chine, Inde, Russie et Ukraine. Cette période a été marquée par une hausse significative des prix mondiaux de la plupart des produits agricoles, mais pas de tous cependant. Face à la flambée des prix alimentaires, les pouvoirs publics ont mis en place différentes mesures : réductions tarifaires, restrictions à l'exportation, relèvement des prix minimums et contrôle des prix, subventions aux intrants, vente des stocks et transferts directs aux plus démunis. Par ailleurs, ils ont souvent choisi de développer les mécanismes de crédit bonifié et/ou de rééchelonnement de la dette, cherché à améliorer la mise en oeuvre et les performances des politiques agricoles, étendu plus largement les programmes d'assurance, et accéléré la réforme agraire. Le rapport comprend également une annexe statistique très complète, qui donne un large éventail d'informations contextuelles sur ces économies.

    Le rapport fournit les estimations du soutien accordé à l'agriculture entre 1995 et 2007 pour six des pays pris en compte (à l'exception de l'Inde), effectuées conformément à la méthode de mesure de l'OCDE récemment révisée. Ces chiffres permettent une comparaison cohérente de l'évolution du niveau et de la composition du soutien aux producteurs et à l'ensemble du secteur, tant entre les différentes économies émergentes qu'avec les pays de l'OCDE.

  • OECD's 2013 Economic Survey of Italy examines recent economic developments, policy and prospects. Its special chapter examines policy implemention: legislation, public administration and rule of law.

  • This review provides an analytical perspective of the current situation, including the construction of a database, in order to help the Greek government define reforms to improve the effectiveness, efficiency and fairness of selected social programmes. The review identifies gaps and overlaps in social protection, and highlights areas where there is room for significant efficiency gains, in order to support informed and concrete decisions by the Greek government on where budgetary savings can most appropriately be made, taking into account the balance between societal groups and the need to maintain social cohesion.

  • The world is becoming increasingly global. This raises important challenges for regulatory processes which still largely emanate from domestic jurisdictions. In order to eliminate unnecessary regulatory divergences and to address global challenges pertaining to systemic risks, the environment, and human health and safety, governments increasingly seek to better articulate regulations across borders and to ensure greater enforcement of rules and their application cross jurisdictions remain largely under-analysed.
    This report gathers in a synthetic manner the knowledge and evidence available to date on the various mechanisms available to governments to promote regulatory co-operation, and their benefits and challenges. The review of evidence confirms the increased internationalisation of regulation, which takes place through a wide variety of mechanisms and multiple actors, and highlights a shift in the nature of IRC from complete 'harmonisation' of regulation to more flexible options - such as mutual recognition agreements. Despite growing regulatory co-operation, however, decision making on IRC is not informed by a clear understanding of benefits costs and success factors of the diverse IRC options.

  • This report assesses the extent to which Dutch water governance is fit for future challenges and sketches an agenda for the reform of water policies in the Netherlands. It builds on a one-year policy dialogue with over 100 Dutch stakeholders, supported by robust analytical work and drawing on international best practice.

  • Objectif croissance est la publication périodique de l'OCDE consacrée aux réformes structurelles jugées prioritaires pour rehausser les revenus dans les pays de l'OCDE et dans certaines grandes économies non membres de l'Organisation (l'Afrique du Sud, le Brésil, la Chine, la Fédération de Russie, l'Inde et l'Indonésie). Les priorités d'action identifiées sont actualisées tous les deux ans et présentées dans un rapport complet, incluant des notes par pays dans lesquelles sont formulées des recommandations précises correspondant à ces priorités. Le prochain rapport complet sera publié en 2015.

    Ce rapport intermédiaire présente un bilan des mesures prises par les autorités au cours des deux dernières années dans les domaines jugés prioritaires pour la croissance. Cet exercice d'inventaire s'appuie sur un ensemble d'indicateurs comparables au niveau international, qui permet aux pays d'évaluer leurs performances économiques et leurs politiques structurelles dans un large éventail de domaines.

  • Anglais OECD Insurance Statistics 2012

    Collectif

    • Oecd
    • 14 August 2013

    The insurance industry is a key component of the economy by virtue of the amount of premiums it collects, the scale of its investment and, more fundamentally, the essential social and economic role it plays in covering personal and business risks.

    This annual publication provides major official insurance statistics for all OECD countries. The reader will find information on the diverse activities of this industry and on international insurance market trends.

    For the first time an analytical chapter including data from OECD members and selected additional economies has been included. This additional chapter highlights the underlying reasons for the trends in gross premium growth and claims developments between 2010 and 2011, and presents key performance indicators.

    The data, which are standardised as far as possible, are broken down under numerous sub-headings, and a series of indicators makes the characteristics of the national markets more readily comprehensible. This publication is an essential tool for civil servants, professionals and academics working in the insurance field.

  • Les Comptes nationaux des pays de l'OCDE, Tableaux Détaillés fournit, en plus des principaux agrégats, des comptes nationaux détaillés pour les dépenses de consommation finale des ménages par fonction, les comptes simplifiés des trois principaux secteurs : administrations publiques, sociétés et ménages. Les données sont montrées pour 34 pays de l'OCDE et la Zone euro depuis 2005. Les données sont exprimées en monnaie nationale. Ces statistiques sont basées sur le Système de Comptabilité Nationale 1993 (SCN 1993) pour tous les pays à l'exception de l'Australie, présentée sur la base du SCN 2008.

    Cette publication est également disponible sous forme de base de données en ligne qui permet aux utilisateurs d'extraire des données et de construire des tableaux et graphiques. Elle est disponible via sur le OECD iLibrary sous le titre Statistiques de l'OCDE sur les comptes nationaux (http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/na-data-fr).

  • La dix-neuvième édition de l'OCDE des Perspectives agricoles, élaborée conjointement pour la neuvième fois avec l'Organisation pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture (FAO), présente des projections à l'horizon 2022 pour les principaux produits agricoles, les biocarburants et les poissons. Il est à noter que le rapport 2013 comprend pour la première fois le coton et un chapitre spécial sur la Chine.

    Des coûts plus élevés et une forte demande laissent présager que les prix resteront bien supérieurs aux moyennes historiques avec un risque élevé de volatilité des prix, étant donné le niveau tendu des stocks, un environnement politique variable et l'accroissement des risques de production liés aux conditions climatiques. La Chine devrait demeurer autosuffisante en ce qui concerne les principaux produits alimentaires tout en développant ses échanges et son intégration dans les marchés agricoles mondiaux.

  • OECD's 2013 Economic Survey of Ireland examines recent economic developemnts, policies and prospects. This issue's special chapters cover youth employment and innovation.

  • Le rapport Coopération pour le développement (RCD) 2013 vise à fournir des pistes de réflexion sur la façon d'accomplir des progrès rapides et durables dans la lutte contre la pauvreté mondiale. Le monde est sur la bonne voie pour réaliser l'objectif du Millénaire pour le développement (OMD) de réduire de moitié la proportion de la population dont le revenu est inférieur à 1,25 dollar par jour. Nous sommes néanmoins loin de réaliser l'objectif global d'éradication de l'extrême pauvreté et de la faim. Nous avons tiré des enseignements sur les moyens efficaces permettant de réduire la pauvreté. Néanmoins, "arriver à zéro" demeure un défi face aux grandes difficultés pour toucher ceux en proie à une extrême pauvreté.

    Ce rapport porte principalement sur les plus démunis et décrit concrètement :

    - la nature et les dimensions de la pauvreté aujourd'hui ;

    - ce que peut apporter la coopération au développement, soutenue par des partenariats mondiaux, dans la lutte contre la pauvreté.

    Le RCD 2013 porte principalement sur les expériences positives des pays en mettant en avant les politiques et approches ayant fonctionné.

  • Études économiques de l'OCDE : Nouvelle-Zélande 2013 examine les développements récents, la politique et les perspectives économiques de ce pays. Ce rapport comporte des chapitres consacrés à la transition de l'école au travail et la croissance à long terme.

  • This report contains the "Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice" review, as well as revised version of the "Phase 1: Legal and Regulatory Framework review" already released for the Philippines.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by 120 jurisdictions, which participate in the Global Forum on an equal footing. The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004. The standards have also been incorporated into the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. Fishing expeditions are not authorised but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction's legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined - Phase 1 and Phase 2 - reviews. The Global Forum has also put in place a process for supplementary reports to follow-up on recommendations, as well as for the ongoing monitoring of jurisdictions following the conclusion of a review. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

    All review reports are published once approved by the Global Forum and they thus represent agreed Global Forum reports.

  • Études économiques de l'OCDE : Chili 2013 examine les développements récents, la politique et les perspectives économiques de ce pays. Ce rapport comporte des chapitres consacrés à l'innovation et à l'entrepreneuriat.

  • This report contains the "Phase 2: Implementation of the Standards in Practice" review, as well as revised version of the "Phase 1: Legal and Regulatory Framework review" already released for Macao, China.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by 120 jurisdictions, which participate in the Global Forum on an equal footing. The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004. The standards have also been incorporated into the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. Fishing expeditions are not authorised but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction's legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined - Phase 1 and Phase 2 - reviews. The Global Forum has also put in place a process for supplementary reports to follow-up on recommendations, as well as for the ongoing monitoring of jurisdictions following the conclusion of a review. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

    All review reports are published once approved by the Global Forum and they thus represent agreed Global Forum reports.

    For more information on the work of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes, and for copies of the published review reports, please refer to www.oecd.org/tax/transparency and www.eoi-tax.org.

  • Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators is the authoritative source for accurate and relevant information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances, and performance of education systems in more than 40 countries, including OECD members and G20 partners.
    Featuring more than 100 charts, 200 tables, and over 100 000 figures, Education at a Glance provides key information on the ouput of educational institutions; the impact of learning across countries; the financial and human resources invested in education; access, participation and progression in education; and the learning environment and organisation of schools.
    In the 2013 edition, new material includes:

    More recent data on the economic crisis, showing that education remains the best protection against unemployment;
    More detailed data on programme orientation (general versus vocational) in secondary and tertiary education;
    An analysis of how work status (full-time, part-time, involuntary part-time) is related to individuals' level of education;
    A review of the relationship between fields of education and tuition fees, unemployment rates and earnings premiums;
    An indicator showing how many of the students who enter a tertiary programme ultimately graduate from it;
    An indicator on the relationship between educational attainment and two health-related concerns, obesity and smoking; and
    Trend data covering the years 1995 to 2010-11 for all the key indicators.
    The ExcelTM spreadsheets used to create the tables and charts in Education at a Glance are available via the StatLinks provided throughout the publication. The tables and charts, as well as the complete OECD Online Education Database, are freely available via the OECD Education website at www.oecd.org/edu/eag.htm

  • Contents
    Chapter 1. The rise of knowledge networks and markets as enablers of open innovation
    Chapter 2. Knowledge flows
    Chapter 3. Advantages of knowledge networks and markets
    Chapter 4. Theories for building knowledge networks and markets
    Chapter 5. Case Studies of knowledge networks and markets
    Chapter 6. The importance of knowledge valuation for knowledge networks and markets
    Chapter 7. Conclusions and research needs in knowledge networks and markets

  • Abruzzo is at a tipping point: despite economic, cultural and natural strengths, the region is facing declining economic growth, ageing population and a reduction in outside economic aid. The devastating earthquake that hit the regional capital L'Aquila and its surroundings on 6 April 2009 caused 309 deaths and was a significant economic shock, jeopardizing the long-term growth prospects of an already vulnerable region.
    To increase its resilience to current and future shocks, Abruzzo must encourage innovation-driven growth, based on knowledge and better use of skills, and redesign the city of L'Aquila through technological upgrade to make it more attractive to outsiders and improve the quality of life of its residents.
    The report suggests that Abruzzo should focus on endogenous resources to build its long-term development strategy and, at the same time, to increase the external openness of the regional system to attract more entrepreneurs, students, foreigners and external capital. The economic development and quality of societal life in Abruzzo will strongly depend on how private and public actors will make the best use of existing knowledge, strengthening the cultural and economic networks as a major tool for growth; as well as promoting information sharing, transparency, accountability and community engagement to improve decision making.
    More broadly, the issues raised in the report can help other governments to rethink regional policy, for both regions vulnerable to natural disasters and for those facing long-term decline. As such, eight guiding recommendations for building resilient regions after a disaster are drawn. These guiding recommendations can provide a framework for policy making in other OECD regions.

  • This 2014 OECD Economic Survey of Norway examines recent economic developements, policies and prospects. Special chapters cover real estate markets and financial risk and entrepreneurship.

  • OECD's 2014 Economic Survey of Canada examines recent economic developments, policies and prospects. Special chapters cover housing in Canada and the labour market and skills mismatch.

  • Études économiques de l'OCDE : Canada 2014 examine les développements récents, les politiques et les perspectives économiques de ce pays. Ce rapport comporte des chapitres consacrés au logement et à l'inadéquation du marché du travail et des compétences.

  • This report contains the "Phase 2: Implementation of the Standard in Practice" review of the British Virgin Islands, as well as a revised version of the "Phase 1: Legal and Regulatory Framework review" already released for this jurisdiction.

    The Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes is the multilateral framework within which work in the area of tax transparency and exchange of information is carried out by 120 jurisdictions, which participate in the Global Forum on an equal footing. The Global Forum is charged with in-depth monitoring and peer review of the implementation of the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes. These standards are primarily reflected in the 2002 OECD Model Agreement on Exchange of Information on Tax Matters and its commentary, and in Article 26 of the OECD Model Tax Convention on Income and on Capital and its commentary as updated in 2004. The standards have also been incorporated into the UN Model Tax Convention.

    The standards provide for international exchange on request of foreseeably relevant information for the administration or enforcement of the domestic tax laws of a requesting party. Fishing expeditions are not authorised but all foreseeably relevant information must be provided, including bank information and information held by fiduciaries, regardless of the existence of a domestic tax interest or the application of a dual criminality standard.

    All members of the Global Forum, as well as jurisdictions identified by the Global Forum as relevant to its work, are being reviewed. This process is undertaken in two phases. Phase 1 reviews assess the quality of a jurisdiction's legal and regulatory framework for the exchange of information, while Phase 2 reviews look at the practical implementation of that framework. Some Global Forum members are undergoing combined - Phase 1 and Phase 2 - reviews. The Global Forum has also put in place a process for supplementary reports to follow-up on recommendations, as well as for the ongoing monitoring of jurisdictions following the conclusion of a review. The ultimate goal is to help jurisdictions to effectively implement the international standards of transparency and exchange of information for tax purposes.

    All review reports are published once approved by the Global Forum and they thus represent agreed Global Forum reports.

    For more information on the work of the Global Forum on Transparency and Exchange of Information for Tax Purposes, and for copies of the published review reports, please refer to www.oecd.org/tax/transparency and www.eoi-tax.org.

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