OECD

  • Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is indispensable for making good decisions on what transport projects to fund.  It essentially aims to figure out which projects offer the best value for money.  However, the practical relevance of CBA does not always live up to its appeal in principle.  One problem is that there is sometimes disagreement over what to include in CBA, both on the cost side and the benefits side of the analysis. As a result, value for money is not always fully transparent. More politically, value for money is only a partial criterion for decision-making, leading to disagreement about the relative importance of the results from CBA compared to other inputs to the decision-making process.
    This report examines the extent to which these shortcomings can be addressed. In terms of what to include in CBA, discussion focuses on equity and distributional impacts, productivity effects, agglomeration benefits and external costs. The focus then turns to how best to present guidance on project selection to decision makers. The report includes papers on the way CBA is used in three countries - France, Mexico and the United Kingdom - and how it is evolving in response to changing policy priorities.

  • How can countries prepare teachers to face the diverse challenges in today´s schools? The OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) helps answer this question by asking teachers and school leaders about their working conditions and the learning environments at their schools. TALIS aims to provide valid, timely and comparable information to help countries review and define policies for developing a high-quality teaching profession. It is an opportunity for teachers and school leaders to provide input into educational policy analysis and development in key areas. This report presents the results of the second cycle of the TALIS survey conducted in 2013.

  • Source d´informations précises et pertinentes, Regards sur l´éducation : Les indicateurs de l´OCDE fait figure de publication de référence sur l´état de l´éducation dans le monde. Elle fournit des données sur la structure, le financement et les performances des systèmes d´éducation dans plus de 40 pays, dont les pays membres de l´OCDE et des pays partenaires membres du G20.

  • Quelles implications la diversité accrue de nos sociétés a-t-elle pour l'éducation ? Quel rôle jouent les nouvelles technologies dans nos vies, et comment peuvent-elles être exploitées au mieux par nos établissements scolaires ? Quelles compétences l'éducation devrait-elle développer pour nos sociétés de plus en plus axées sur le savoir ?

    Les grandes mutations qui transforment l'éducation 2013 a pour objectif d´étayer la planification stratégique et de stimuler la réflexion au regard des défis auxquels doit faire face le secteur éducatif à tous les niveaux d´enseignement (écoles, universités ou encore programmes de formation continue). Cet ouvrage s´adresse également aux étudiants et à la société dans son ensemble, notamment aux parents d´élèves.

    Cet ouvrage donne un aperçu des principales tendances économiques, sociales, démographiques et technologiques et soulève une série de questions pertinentes concernant l´impact de ces tendances sur l´éducation. Ce recueil s´appuie sur diverses sources de données internationales faisant autorité, parmi lesquelles l´OCDE, la Banque Mondiale et les Nations Unies. Les graphiques présentés contiennent des liens dynamiques qui permettent au lecteur d'avoir accès aux données originales. Les grandes mutations qui transforment l'éducation 2013 est composé de cinq chapitres thématiques, comprenant chacun une section "Pour en savoir plus" : Un monde globalisé, Bien-être et mode de vie, Les dynamiques du travail et des compétences, Les familles modernes et Une connexion infinie.

  • Dans les pays de l´OCDE, près d´un élève sur cinq n´atteint pas le niveau minimum de compétences de base. En outre, les élèves issus de milieux socio-économiques défavorisés sont deux fois plus susceptibles d´obtenir de mauvais résultats scolaires. Le manque d´équité et d´inclusion peut entraîner l´échec scolaire : en moyenne, un jeune sur cinq quitte ainsi l´école avant la fin du deuxième cycle de l´enseignement secondaire.

    La réduction de l´échec scolaire est bénéfique, tant pour la société que pour les individus. Les systèmes d´éducation les plus performants des pays de l´OCDE sont ceux qui allient qualité et équité. Ce rapport présente une série de recommandations politiques pour permettre aux systèmes d´éducation d´accompagner l´ensemble de leurs élèves vers la réussite.
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  • Comment les pays peuvent-ils préparer les enseignants à relever les différents défis des établissements d´enseignement d´aujourd´hui ? L´Enquête internationale sur l´enseignement et l´apprentissage (TALIS) de l´OCDE aide à répondre à cette question en interrogeant les enseignants et les chefs d´établissement sur leurs conditions de travail et l´environnement d´apprentissage dans leur établissement. En apportant des données précises, récentes et comparables, l´enquête TALIS a pour objectif d´aider les pays à élaborer et à améliorer leurs politiques, de manière à porter la profession d´enseignant au plus haut niveau de qualité. Pour les enseignants et les chefs d´établissement, elle représente une possibilité de contribuer à l´analyse et à la formulation de politiques d´éducation dans des domaines clés. Parmi les thèmes explorés figurent la formation continue, la direction d´établissement, les pratiques pédagogiques, le climat scolaire, les évaluations et les commentaires y afférents, la satisfaction professionnelle et le profil des enseignants. Le présent rapport synthétise les résultats de la deuxième édition de l´enquête TALIS, menée en 2013.

  • Anglais Education at a Glance 2014

    Ocde

    • Oecd
    • 9 September 2014

    Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators is the authoritative source for accurate and relevant information on the state of education around the world. It provides data on the structure, finances, and performance of education systems in the OECD´s 34 member countries, as well as a number of partner countries.

    In the 2014 edition, new material includes:

    O Data from the Survey of Adult Skills, a product of the OECD Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC), on attainment, employment, intergenerational education mobility, earnings, and social outcomes related to skills proficiency.

    O New indicators on private institutions, on what it takes to become a teacher, and on the availability of, and participation in, professional development activities for teachers.

    O Data from the 2013 OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (TALIS) in several indicators.

    O Analysis of the impact of the recent economic crisis on the interplay among educational attainment, employment, earnings and public finance.

    O More in-depth information related to upper secondary completion rates.

    O A detailed examination of the types and use of student loans.

    O For the first time, data from Colombia and Latvia.

  • Do teachers innovate? Do they try different pedagogical approaches? Are practices within classrooms and educational organisations changing? And to what extent can change be linked to improvements? A measurement agenda is essential to an innovation and improvement strategy in education. Measuring Innovation in Educationoffers new perspectives on addressing the need for such measurement.

    This book´s first objective is informative: it gives readers new international comparative information about innovation in education compared to other sectors. And it documents change in a variety of dimensions of school practices between 1999 and 2011. Its second objective is methodological: it assesses two approaches to capturing the extent and type of innovation occurring within and across education systems. The third objective is exploratory: this book showcases a large-scale pilot that presents over 200 measures of innovation in education using existing international data. Last but not least, the fourth objective is prospective: this report proposes new approaches to measuring innovation in education in the future.

    This book is the beginning of a new journey: it calls for innovations in the field of measurement - and not just of education.

  • How can student assessment, teacher appraisal, school evaluation and system evaluation bring about real gains in performance across a country´s school system? This review report for the Netherlands provides, from an international perspective, an independent analysis of major issues facing the Dutch evaluation and assessment framework in education, current policy initiatives and possible future approaches. This series forms part of the OECD Review on Evaluation and Assessment Frameworks for Improving School Outcomes.

  • Anglais Education at a Glance 2014 ; highlights

    Ocde

    • Oecd
    • 9 September 2014

    Education at a Glance 2014: Highlights summarises the OECD´s flagship compendium of education statistics, Education at a Glance. It provides easily accessible data on key topics in education today, including:

    O Education levels and student numbers: How far have adults studied, and how does early childhood education affect student performance later on?

    O Higher education and work: How many young people graduate from tertiary education, and how easily do they enter the world of work?

    O Economic and social benefits of education: How does education affect people´s job prospects, and what is its impact on incomes?

    O Paying for education: What share of public spending goes on education, and what is the role of private spending?
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    O The school environment: How many hours do teachers work, and how does class size vary?

    Each indicator is presented on a two-page spread. The left-hand page explains the significance of the indicator, discusses the main findings, examines key trends and provides readers with a roadmap for finding out more in the OECD education databases and in other OECD education publications. The right-hand page contains clearly presented charts and tables, accompanied by dynamic hyperlinks (StatLinks) that direct readers to the corresponding data in ExcelTM format.

  • Les gouvernements sont parmi les principaux émetteurs de titres d´emprunt sur le marché mondial des capitaux. Le présent volume fournit des informations quantitatives sur les titres d´emprunt d´État pour les 34 pays membres de l'OCDE en vue de répondre aux besoins analytiques des utilisateurs tels que les pouvoirs publics, les spécialistes de la gestion de la dette et les analystes de marché. Les statistiques sont présentées selon un plan d´ensemble normalisé pour permettre une comparaison entre les différents pays. Les notes méthodologiques par pays donnent des informations sur les émissions de titres d´emprunt dans chacun des pays, ainsi que sur le cadre institutionnel et réglementaire dans lequel s´inscrivent la politique de gestion de la dette et les techniques de vente.

  • Designing for Education: Compendium of Exemplary Educational Facilities 2011 showcases over 60 recently built or refurbished educational facilities from 28 countries. Collectively, these projects demonstrate state-of-the-art design in this field and each one is lavishly illustrated with colour photos, plans and descriptions.

    The individual chapters - which are in higher resolution format - are available on the OECD iLibrary.

  • Each year about 1.3 million people are killed and another 50 million people are injured on roads worldwide. These road crashes cost countries between 1 and 3 percent of their GDP. Many of these crashes can be prevented by effective countermeasures. This report helps identify the most effective safety countermeasures.
    Policy makers need to justify expenditure on road safety in terms of effectiveness, competing for the scarce resources available. The risk of making poor decisions and the cost of making better decisions can be reduced by the use of reliable studies on how effective safety measures are, based on Crash Modification Functions (CMFs). This report shows that there is a prospect for significant advances and major cost savings through the transfer of results internationally, allowing for more rapid adoption and dissemination of new life-saving safety measures.
    The report serves as a guide to how research results can be shared internationally. It provides checklist for systematic review of road safety studies and a framework for standardising methodology.
    The report targets the road safety research community but will also find an audience among policy makers at all levels of government. The report highlights the value of Crash Modification Functions and the importance of ensuring practicioners use the best CMFs available.

  • This book provides, from an international perspective, an independent analysis of major issues facing the educational evaluation and assessment framework, current policy initiatives, and possible future approaches in Mexico.

  • Quelles implications la diversité croissante de nos sociétés a-t-elle pour l´éducation ? Quelle est la nouvelle répartition de la puissance économique mondiale ? Quelles sont les mutations observées à l´heure actuelle dans le monde du travail ?
    Les grandes mutations qui transforment l'éducation 2010 compile les données probantes internationales en vue d´apporter des éléments de réponse à ce type de questions. Par souci de clarté, chaque tendance est présentée en double page sous la forme d´une introduction, de deux figures accompagnées d´une description succincte et d´une série de questions d´intérêt pour le secteur éducatif.
    Les tendances présentées sont basées sur des données internationales de qualité, communiquées essentiellement par l´OCDE, la Banque Mondiale et les Nations Unies. Les figures comportent des liens actifs permettant au lecteur d´accéder aux données d´origine. Les grandes mutations qui transforment l'éducation 2010  s´organise autour de cinq grands thèmes, assortis chacun d´une section « Pour en savoir plus » :
    Les dynamiques de la mondialisation ;
    Les nouveaux défis sociaux ;
    Un monde du travail en pleine mutation ;
    Le nouveau visage de l´enfance ;
    Technologies de l´information et de la communication : tendances pour les années à venir.Cet ouvrage a pour objet de fournir aux responsables politiques, aux chercheurs, aux chefs d´établissements, aux administrateurs scolaires et aux enseignants une source d´informations fiable et générique pour étayer la planification stratégique et stimuler la réflexion sur les défis auxquels doit faire face le secteur éducatif à tous les niveaux d´enseignement (écoles, universités ou encore programmes de formation continue). Cet ouvrage s´adresse également aux étudiants et à la société dans son ensemble, notamment aux parents d´élèves.

  • Cet ouvrage analyse tout d´abord les conflits liés aux ressources, forme d´instabilité ancienne et récurrente dans la région. Les causes, les enjeux et les outils de réponse régionaux sont examinés à partir d´études de cas. Cette publication explore ensuite une dimension relativement récente de l´insécurité :  les terrorismes. Elle rappelle les développements d´AQMI et de Boko Haram puis s´intéresse, dans un essai comparatif, aux mécanismes légaux qui encadrent la lutte contre le terrorisme. La congruence de ces insécurités et la violence des crises actuelles posent pour l´Afrique de l´Ouest et la communauté internationale un risque de déstabilisation sans précédent.
    Contenu Partie I. Sécurité autour des ressources Chapitre 1. Paramètres environnementaux et sécurité Chapitre 2. Conflits fonciers Chapitre 3. Tensions agro-pastorales Partie II. Terrorismes Chapitre 4. Analyse de la crise au nord du Mali Chapitre 5. Boko Haram : une nouvelle menace en Afrique de l´Ouest Chapitre 6. Des mécanismes antiterroristes à l'épreuve

  • This study first analyses an old and recurring form of instability in the region: conflict over resources. A series of case studies  examines the causes of these conflicts with reference to the associated regional challenges and response tools. Secondly, the study addresses terrorism, a relatively new dimension of insecurity. It outlines the development of AQMI and Boko Haram and then focuses on a comparative analysis of legal mechanisms to fight against terrorism. The argument holds that the congruence of these insecurities and the current violent crises present an unprecedented risk of destabilisation for West Africa and the international community.

  • With procurement accounting for 13% of GDP and a third of government expenditures on average in OECD countries, investing in appropriate processes to mitigate risks of waste and corruption leads to efficiency gains considering the financial stakes. In 2008 OECD countries committed to promoting transparency, integrity, good management as well as accountability in procurement with the adoption of the OECD Recommendation on Enhancing Integrity in Public Procurement. This assessment of progress made in OECD countries shows that as a result of austerity measures governments have been under tight budgetary constraints to provide smarter procurement, that is better service delivery at lower cost. Because environmental protection has become a growing societal imperative, the review of progress made shows that there is a strong political push in OECD countries to integrate environmental considerations in procurement. With the economic crisis, some governments have been tempted to use procurement to ease its socio-economic impact on societies by providing a substitute for direct social policies to support employment for specific communities. However few governments have invested in prioritising the objectives pursued through procurement, assessing their costs or benefits, and measuring their actual impact.

  • This is the latest of the influential series of OECD reports on Innovative Learning Environments. "Learning leadership" is fundamental because it is about setting direction, taking responsibility for putting learning at the centre and keeping it there. This becomes increasingly complex in 21st century settings, calling for innovation and going beyond the heroics of individual leaders. Many need to be involved, bringing in diverse partners at different levels.

    This is all explored in this volume. It clarifies the concepts and the dimensions of "learning leadership", relating it to extensive international research and identifying promising strategies to promote it. Specific examples are drawn from Austria, Australia, Canada, Israel, Norway, Singapore, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States. There is an extensive overview that addresses the "why, what, how, who, where, and when" of learning leadership. Among the international experts contributing to this volume are James Spillane, John MacBeath, Louise Stoll, and Clive Dimmock.

    This report will prove to be a valuable resource for all those interested in schooling. It will be of particular interest to teachers and teacher educators, advisors and researchers, the voluntary sector and teacher associations, and, first and foremost, education leaders themselves.

  • This book finds that, in many ways, Northern Ireland stands out internationally with its thoughtfully designed evaluation and assessment framework. The major components are well developed, in particular policies for student assessment, school evaluation and school system evaluation. It has been developed using the majority of key design principles recommended by the OECD. The approach to evaluation and assessment combines: central control over policy development and standard setting; transparency over procedures and reporting of results; an increasing responsibility for the implementation of evaluation and assessment among teachers and schools; and central mechanisms to monitor the effectiveness of implementation. For example, while schools and their Boards of Governors are accountable for their educational quality and are accountable to their communities, school development planning processes are also monitored as part of external school evaluation by a central inspectorate. Teachers play a central role in student assessment and their assessment of pupil progress against central standards is moderated by a central agency which engages working teachers in the process. Teachers in primary schools are offered central diagnostic tests to support their assessment of pupil progress. Only teacher appraisal remains entirely school based, but there is a set of common competence standards for teachers.

  • La science, la technologie, l´innovation et l´entrepreneuriat étant des facteurs de compétitivité, de productivité et de création d´emploi, ils constituent d´importants leviers de croissance durable. Avec plus de 250 indicateurs, le Tableau de bord de l'OCDE de la science, de la technologie et de l'industrie met en lumière les résultats affichés par les pays de l´OCDE et les grandes économies non membres dans un large éventail de domaines. Le Tableau de bord aide les États à concevoir des politiques plus efficaces et rationnelles et à suivre les progrès accomplis dans la réalisation de leurs objectifs.

    Tous les graphiques et données sous-jacentes sont téléchargeables et, pour certains indicateurs, des données complémentaires sont proposées afin d´élargir la couverture géographique et temporelle.

    Résumé o Économie du savoir : tendances et caractéristiques o Développer les connaissances o Partager la connaissance o Cibler les nouveaux domaines de croissance o Libérer l´innovation dans les entreprises o Soutenir la concurrence dans l´économie du savoir o Participer à l´économie mondiale Pour plus d´informations sur le Tableau de bord de l'OCDE de la science, de la technologie et de l'industrie, voir www.oecd.org/fr/sti/science-technologie-industrie-tableau-de-bord.htm

  • Arts education is often said to be a means of developing critical and creative thinking. Arts education has also been argued to enhance performance in non-arts academic subjects such as mathematics, science, reading and writing, and to strengthen students´ academic motivation, self-confidence, and ability to communicate and co-operate effectively. Arts education thus seems to have a positive impact on the three subsets of skills that we define as "skills for innovation": subject-based skills, including in non-arts subjects; skills in thinking and creativity; and behavioural and social skills.

    This report examines the state of empirical knowledge about the impact of arts education on these kinds of outcomes. The kinds of arts education examined include arts classes in school (classes in music, visual arts, theatre, and dance), arts-integrated classes (where the arts are taught as a support for an academic subject), and arts study undertaken outside of school (e.g. private music lessons; out-of-school classes in theatre, visual arts, and dance). The report does not deal with education about the arts or cultural education, which may be included in all kinds of subjects.

  • Anglais Teacher evaluation in Chile 2013

    Ocde

    • Oecd
    • 8 November 2013

    This book provides, from an international perspective, an independent analysis of major issues facing teacher evaluation, current policy initiatives, and possible future approaches in Chile.

  • The OECD Economic Outlook is the OECD's twice-yearly analysis of the major economic trends and prospects for the next two years. The Outlook puts forward a consistent set of projections for output, employment, prices, fiscal and current account balances.

    Coverage is provided for all OECD member countries as well as for selected non-member countries. This issue includes a general assessment, chapters summarising developments and providing projections for each individual country, a special chapter on growth prospects and fiscal requirements over the long term, and a statistical annex.

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