• This book is Open Access under a CC BY license.
    This volume offers an essential resource for economic policymakers as well as students of development economics focusing on the interrelationships of migration, urbanization and poverty in Asia. The continent's recent demographic transitions and rural-urban structural transformations are extraordinary, and involve complexities that require in-depth study. 
    The chapters within this volume examine those complexities using a range of traditional and non-traditional measures, such as multidimensional poverty, gaps and polarization, to arrive at the conclusion that poverty is now an urban issue.
    In short, the book will help students of development economics and policymakers understand the interrelationships between internal migration, urbanization and poverty, paving the way for the improved management of internal migration and disadvantaged and vulnerable populations.

  • Market Engineering Nouv.

    Anglais Market Engineering


    This open access book provides a broad range of insights on market engineering and information management. It covers topics like auctions, stock markets, electricity markets, the sharing economy, information and emotions in markets, smart decision-making in cities and other systems, and methodological approaches to conceptual modeling and taxonomy development. Overall, this book is a source of inspiration for everybody working on the vision of advancing the science of engineering markets and managing information for contributing to a bright, sustainable, digital world.

    Markets are powerful and extremely efficient mechanisms for coordinating individuals' and organizations' behavior in a complex, networked economy. Thus, designing, monitoring, and regulating markets is an essential task of today's society. This task does not only derive from a purely economic point of view. Leveraging market forces can also help to tackle pressing social and environmental challenges. Moreover, markets process, generate, and reveal information. This information is a production factor and a valuable economic asset. In an increasingly digital world, it is more essential than ever to understand the life cycle of information from its creation and distribution to its use. Both markets and the flow of information should not arbitrarily emerge and develop based on individual, profit-driven actors. Instead, they should be engineered to serve best the whole society's goals. This motivation drives the research fields of market engineering and information management.

    With this book, the editors and authors honor Professor Dr. Christof Weinhardt for his enormous and ongoing contribution to market engineering and information management research and practice. It was presented to him on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday in April 2021. Thank you very much, Christof, for so many years of cooperation, support, inspiration, and friendship.

  • Selbststudium ist ein wichtiges Element im Zuge der Digitalisierungsbestrebungen an Hochschulen. Das Projekt optes widmet sich dem digitalen, begleiteten Selbststudium im Fach Mathematik. Es bietet mit seinen webbasierten Angeboten die Mglichkeit, das Selbstlernen in der Studienvorbereitung zu unterstützen, um so die Abbruchquoten in MINT-Fächern zu reduzieren. Neben dem Studienvorbereitungsprogramm und Assessment-Tools in der Mathematik im Lernmanagementsystem ILIAS wurden in optes diverse Materialien zur Lernprozessbegleitung entwickelt, inklusive adaptiver Lernempfehlungen, diagnostischer Testverfahren zur Prüfung des Wissensstandes (vor und während des Studiums), Selbstreflexionstools und überfachlicher Lernmodule sowie persnliche E-Mentoring- und E-Tutoring-Programme. Der vorliegende Open-Access-Sammelband stellt die wissenschaftlichen Erkenntnisse und praktischen Umsetzungen aus dem Projektkontext von optes dar.

  • This open access book examines the multiple intersections between national and international courts in the field of investment protection, and suggests possible modes for regulating future jurisdictional interactions between domestic courts and international tribunals. The current system of foreign investment protection consists of more than 3,000 international investment agreements (IIAs), most of which provide for investment arbitration as the forum for the resolution of disputes between foreign investors and host States. However, national courts also have jurisdiction over certain matters involving cross-border investments. International investment tribunals and national courts thus interact in a number of ways, which range from harmonious co-existence to reinforcing complementation, reciprocal supervision and, occasionally, competition and discord. The book maps this complex relationship between dispute settlement bodies in the current investment treaty context and assesses the potential role of domestic courts in future treaty frameworks that could emerge from the States' current efforts to reform the system.The book concludes that, in certain areas of interaction between domestic courts and international investment tribunals, the "division of labor" between the two bodies is not always optimal, producing inefficiencies that burden the system as a whole. In these areas, there is a need for improvement by introducing a more fruitful allocation of tasks between domestic and international courts and tribunals - whatever form(s) the international mechanism for the settlement of investment disputes may take.Given its scope, the book contributes not only to legal analysis, but also to the policy reflections that are needed for ongoing efforts to reform investor-State dispute settlement.

  • This Open Access book analyses the past, present and future of the technical university as a single faculty independent institution. The point of departure is a view of changing academic realities, through which the identity as a technical university is challenged and reconstituted. More specifically, the book connects the development of technical universities to changes in the structure and dimensioning of national higher education systems, to changes in the disciplinary basis of academic research and to changes in the governance of higher education institutions.

    Introduced in the age of industrialization, polytechnical schools rose to prominence in many national settings during the second half of the 19th century. Over time, new technologies have been developed and incorporated into the repertoire, and waves of academisation have swept over the former polytechnics, transforming them into technical universities. Their traditions and brands, however, prevail. Several technical universities are included among the most prestigious academic institutions of their nations and the training of engineers and engineering research still enjoys a high level of prestige and national priority, e.g. in the context of innovation and industrial policy. But the world keeps changing, and the higher education sector with it. Will technical universities have an equally attractive position within university systems in the decades to come?   




  • This open access book discusses the impact of human-induced global climate change on the regional climate and monsoons of the Indian subcontinent, adjoining Indian Ocean and the Himalayas. It documents the regional climate change projections based on the climate models used in the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) and climate change modeling studies using the IITM Earth System Model (ESM) and CORDEX South Asia datasets. The IPCC assessment reports, published every 6-7 years, constitute important reference materials for major policy decisions on climate change, adaptation, and mitigation. While the IPCC assessment reports largely provide a global perspective on climate change, the focus on regional climate change aspects is considerably limited. The effects of climate change over the Indian subcontinent involve complex physical processes on different space and time scales, especially given that the mean climate of this region is generally shaped by the Indian monsoon and the unique high-elevation geographical features such as the Himalayas, the Western Ghats, the Tibetan Plateau and the adjoining Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea, and Bay of Bengal. This book also presents policy relevant information based on robust scientific analysis and assessments of the observed and projected future climate change over the Indian region.

  • Dieses Buch ist eine Open-Access-Publikation unter einer CC BY 4.0 Lizenz. 
    Subsidiarität ist zu einem Schlüsselbegriff des Diskurses um die Europäische Menschenrechtskonvention (EMRK) geworden. Neben seiner vielbeachteten materiell-rechtlichen Funktion kommt dem Begriff auch eine verfahrensrechtliche Tragweite zu. Das vorliegende Buch widmet sich dieser prozessualen Dimension des Subsidiaritätsprinzips und beleuchtet das Verhältnis von nationalen Gerichten und Europäischem Gerichtshof für Menschenrechte (EGMR) mit Blick auf die Tatsachenfeststellung. Konkret geht es einerseits um die Frage, wie der EGMR mit Tatsachen umgehen soll, die erst nach Abschluss des nationalen Verfahrens entstanden sind oder vor dem EGMR neu vorgebracht werden (echte und unechte Noven). Anderseits ist aufzuzeigen, ob und unter welchen Umständen der EGMR von den Tatsachenfeststellungen der nationalen Gerichte abweichen darf.

  • This open access book explores the role of the ILO (International Labour Organization) in building global social governance from multiple and mutually complementary perspectives. It explores the impact of this UN´s oldest agency, founded in 1919, on the transforming world of work in a global setting, providing insights into the unique history and functions of the ILO as an organization and the evolution of workers' rights through international labour standards stemming from its regulatory mechanism.
    The book examines the persistent dilemma of balancing the benefits of globalization with the protection of workers. It critically assesses the challenges that emerge when international labour standards are implemented and enforced in highly diverse regulatory frameworks in international, regional, national and local contexts. The book also identifies feasible ways to achieve more inclusive labour protection, putting into perspective the tension between the economic and the social in the ILO's second century of operation. It includes reflections on the work of the ILO World Commission on the Social Dimension of Globalisation by Tarja Halonen, who as President of Finland co-chaired the Commission with Benjamin William Mkapa, President of Tanzania.
    Written by distinguished experts and scholars in the fields of international labour law and international law, the book provides an insightful and in-depth analysis of the role of the ILO as an international organization devoted to decent work and social justice. It also sheds light on tripartism and its particular role in the work of the ILO, examining the challenges that a profoundly changing working life presents in terms of labour protection and social justice, and examining the transnational dimension of labour law. Lastly, the book includes a postscript by Nobel economics laureate Professor Joseph E. Stiglitz.

  • Society 5.0


    This open access book introduces readers to the vision on future cities and urban lives in connection with "Society 5.0", which was proposed in the 5th Basic Science and Technology Plan by Japan's national government for a technology-based, human-centered society, emerging from the fourth industrial revolution. The respective chapters summarize the findings and suggestions of joint research projects conducted by H-UTokyo Lab.

    Through the research collaboration and discussion, this book explores the future urban lives under the concept of "Society 5.0", characterized by the key phrases of data-driven society, knowledge-intensive society, and non-monetary society, and suggests the directionality to which the concept should aim as Japan's technology-led national vision.

    Written by Hitachi's researchers as well as academics from a wide range of fields, including engineering, economics, psychology and philosophy at The University of Tokyo, the book is a must read for members of the general public interested in urban planning, students, professionals and researchers in engineering and economics.

  • This open access volume identifies the common and specific aspects of social mechanisms that generate inequalities, through comparative analyses of different dimensions in which inequalities are expressed. It includes studies on social inequalities in 5 European and 5 Latin American countries, along 11 thematic axes: inequalities in the labour market and labour trajectories; asymmetries in the relationship between training and employment; inequalities in work and family life; educational inequalities; geographical and social inequalities: ethnicity and language; social inequalities, migration and space; uncertainty, strategies, resources and capabilities; inequality of opportunity: intergenerational social mobility; social policies; gender inequalities; and research methodology. This volume is the result of a large collaborative project on social inequality funded by the European Commission: the International Network for Comparative Analysis of Social Inequalities. Taking into account diverse perspectives and approximations, the collaborators have created a general analytical framework as a model of analysis of social inequalities. The various contributions in this volume help readers gain a global outlook and help reflect on social inequalities in a comparative perspective. This volume addresses social science graduate and postgraduate students, researchers, social policy makers, as well as a broader academic audience interested in social inequality.

  • This open access book attends to the co-creation of digital public services for ageing societies. Increasingly public services are provided in digital form; their uptake however remains well below expectations. In particular, amongst older adults the need for public services is high, while at the same time the uptake of digital services is lower than the population average. One of the reasons is that many digital public services (or e-services) do not respond well to the life worlds, use contexts and use practices of its target audiences. This book argues that when older adults are involved in the process of identifying, conceptualising, and designing digital public services, these services become more relevant and meaningful.The book describes and compares three co-creation projects that were conducted in two European cities, Bremen and Zaragoza, as part of a larger EU-funded innovation project. The first part of the book traces the origins of co-creation to three distinct domains, in which co-creation has become an equally important approach with different understandings of what it is and entails: (1) the co-production of public services, (2) the co-design of information systems and (3) the civic use of open data. The second part of the book analyses how decisions about a co-creation project's governance structure, its scope of action, its choice of methods, its alignment with strategic policies and its embedding in existing public information infrastructures impact on the process and its results. The final part of the book identifies key challenges to co-creation and provides a more general assessment of what co-creation may achieve, where the most promising areas of application may be and where it probably does not match with the contingent requirements of digital public services. Contributing to current discourses on digital citizenship in ageing societies and user-centric design, this book is useful for researchers and practitioners interested in co-creation, public sector innovation, open government, ageing and digital technologies, citizen engagement and civic participation in socio-technical innovation.

  • This open access book explores the global challenges and experiences related to digital entrepreneurial activities, using carefully selected examples from leading companies and economies that shape world business today and tomorrow. Digital entrepreneurship and the companies steering it have an enormous global impact; they promise to transform the business world and change the way we communicate with each other. These companies use digitalization and artificial intelligence to enhance the quality of decisions and augment their business and customer operations. This book demonstrates how cloud services are continuing to evolve; how cryptocurrencies are traded in the banking industry; how platforms are created to commercialize business, and how, taken together, these developments provide new opportunities in the digitalized era. Further, it discusses a wide range of digital factors changing the way businesses operate, including artificial intelligence, chatbots, voice search, augmented and virtual reality, as well as cyber threats and data privacy management. "Digitalization mirrors the Industrial Revolution's impact. This book provides a complement of perspectives on the opportunities emanating from such a deep seated change in our economy. It is a comprehensive collection of thought leadership mapped into a very useful framework. Scholars, digital entrepreneurs and practitioners will benefit from this timely work."Gina O'Connor, Professor of Innovation Management at Babson College, USA"This book defines and delineates the requirements for companies to enable their businesses to succeed in a post-COVID19 world. This book deftly examines how to accomplish and achieve digital entrepreneurship by leveraging cloud computing, AI, IoT and other critical technologies. This is truly a unique "must-read" book because it goes beyond theory and provides practical examples."Charlie Isaacs, CTO of Customer Connection at Salesforce.com, USA "This book provides digital entrepreneurs useful guidance identifying, validating and building their venture. The international authors developed new perspectives on digital entrepreneurship that can support to create impact ventures."  Felix Staeritz, CEO FoundersLane, Member of the World Economic Forum Digital Leaders Board and bestselling author of FightBack, Germany

  • This open access book builds on the European Union's (EU) Horizon 2020 project `Financial and Institutional Reforms for an Entrepreneurial Society' (FIRES). The authors outline how Europe can move towards more inclusive, innovative and sustainable growth through reforms that will rekindle its entrepreneurial spirit. Based on decades of research and countless discussions with stakeholders, the book also features the FIRES project's full list of policy interventions and institutional reforms that can help policymakers make that agenda a reality.

  • This book is an excellent synthesis of the initial and continuing preparation for Mathematics Teaching in Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic and Venezuela, from which comparative analyses can be made that show similarities and differences, and highlight various perspectives. In August 2012, a workshop of the Capacity and Networking Project (CANP) of the International Commission on Mathematical Instruction (ICMI) was held in Costa Rica. This CANP brought together for two weeks a group of 66 Mathematics educators, mathematicians, university administrators, and elementary and secondary teachers from Colombia, Venezuela, the Dominican Republic, Panamá and Costa Rica. The goal was to promote progress in Mathematics Education in the region; as such it was a unique experience in the region. One of the most important results of this event was the creation of the Mathematics Education Network of Central America and the Caribbean (REDUMATE). It was organized by persons associated with the Mathematics Education Reform Project in Costa Rica (responsible for the most outstanding and innovative curriculum reform in Latin America) and the Inter-American Committee on Mathematics Education (IACME), which is an official regional multinational organization affiliate of ICMI. This book brings to the international Educational Community an important collection of experiences and ideas in the Mathematics Education of four countries of a region within the heart of the American continent, a region that has been many times forgotten. The dissemination of these results can promote the search for international collaborative actions in a wider scale.

  • Solar energetic particles (SEPs) emitted from the Sun are a major space weather hazard motivating the development of predictive capabilities. This book presents the results and findings of the HESPERIA (High Energy Solar Particle Events forecasting and Analysis) project of the EU HORIZON 2020 programme. It discusses the forecasting operational tools developed within the project, and presents progress to SEP research contributed by HESPERIA both from the observational as well as the SEP modelling perspective. Using multi-frequency observational data and simulations HESPERIA investigated the chain of processes from particle acceleration in the corona, particle transport in the magnetically complex corona and interplanetary space, to the detection near 1 AU. The book also elaborates on the unique software that has been constructed for inverting observations of relativistic SEPs to physical parameters that can be compared with space-borne measurements at lower energies. Introductory and pedagogical material included in the book make it accessible to students at graduate level and will be useful as background material for Space Physics and Space Weather courses with emphasis on Solar Energetic Particle Event Forecasting and Analysis.
    This book is published with open access under a CC BY license.

  • This open access volume reveals the hidden power of the script we read in and how it shapes and drives our minds, ways of thinking, and cultures.  Expanding on the Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis (i.e., the idea that language affects the way we think), this volume proposes the "Script Relativity Hypothesis" (i.e., the idea that the script in which we read affects the way we think) by offering a unique perspective on the effect of script (alphabets, morphosyllabaries, or multi-scripts) on our attention, perception, and problem-solving.  Once we become literate, fundamental changes occur in our brain circuitry to accommodate the new demand for resources.  The powerful effects of literacy have been demonstrated by research on literate versus illiterate individuals, as well as cross-scriptal transfer, indicating that literate brain networks function differently, depending on the script being read.  This book identifies the locus of differences between the Chinese, Japanese, and Koreans, and between the East and the West, as the neural underpinnings of literacy.  To support the "Script Relativity Hypothesis", it reviews a vast corpus of empirical studies, including anthropological accounts of human civilization, social psychology, cognitive psychology, neuropsychology, applied linguistics, second language studies, and cross-cultural communication. It also discusses the impact of reading from screens in the digital age, as well as the impact of bi-script or multi-script use, which is a growing trend around the globe.  As a result, our minds, ways of thinking, and cultures are now growing closer together, not farther apart.

  • This open access book is an important reframing of the role of innovation in agriculture. Dr. Campos and his distinguished coauthors address the need for agriculture to feed a growing global population with a reduced environmental footprint while adapting to and mitigating the effects of changing climate. The authors expand the customary discussion of innovation in terms of supply driven R&D to focus on the returns to investors and most importantly, the value to end-users. This is brought to life by exploring effective business models and many cases from agricultural systems across the globe. The focus on converting the results of innovation in R&D into adoption by farmers and other end-users is its greatest contribution. Many lessons from the book can be applied to private and public sectors across an array of agricultural systems. This book will be of enormous value to agri-business professionals, NGO leaders, agricultural and development researchers and those funding innovation and agriculture across the private and public sectors.

    Tony Cavalieri, Senior Program Officer, Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation


    Hugo Campos, Ph.D., MBA, has 20+ years of international corporate and development experience. His distinguished coauthors represent a rich collection of successful innovation practice in industry, consultancy, international development and academy, in both developed and developing countries."

  • This open access book presents new developments in the field of demographic forecasting, covering both mortality, fertility and migration. For each component emerging methods to forecast them are presented. Moreover, instruments for forecasting evaluation are provided. Bayesian models, nonparametric models, cohort approaches, elicitation of expert opinion, evaluation of probabilistic forecasts are some of the topics covered in the book. In addition, the book is accompanied by complementary material on the web allowing readers to practice with some of the ideas exposed in the book. Readers are encouraged to use this material to apply the new methods to their own data. The book is an important read for demographers, applied statisticians, as well as other social scientists interested or active in the field of population forecasting. Professional population forecasters in statistical agencies will find useful new ideas in various chapters.

  • This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.This book is intended primarily for practitioners who are facing the "softwareisation" of their business. It presents the Scaling Management Framework, a model based on collected experiences from companies that have already made the journey to give software a central role within the organization. The model is unique because it suggests a holistic method to analyze and plan your journey. It simply means that you can't just focus solely on your products or services. You also have to look closely at your processes and your organization, the way you make decisions and get things done. Inevitably, these will have to change.Software has changed the rules of the game. The world talks about the digitalization in industry and society - how the focus has shifted from producing tangible things towards software and services. This trend started many years ago, but is now affecting every company, whether it's a software company or not. There are many companies that have already made a digitalization journey - and many are about to embark on this journey - like you. How do you transform your organization when software is becoming a critical part of your business?This book comes with a map, a compass, and suggested journeys along with selected travel stories comprising best practices and lessons learned from past digitalization journeys. Use the map to find your way in the digitalization landscape, and use the compass to find the direction of your journey.

  • Automatisiertes Fahren wird aktuell auf allen Ebenen diskutiert. Dieses Open Access Buch greift das Thema aus Sicht des ÖPNV auf und stellt Chancen und Risiken des Einsatzes automatisierter Shuttlebusse im Nahverkehr dar. Am Beispiel Bad Birnbach/Niederbayern wird gezeigt, welche Herausforderungen bei der Einführung eines solchen Services zu erwarten sind und wie diese gelst werden knnen. Dabei fokussiert sich das Buch auf die Vermittlung von im Feld erhobenen Daten, z.B. zu technischen Schwierigkeiten, Erfahrungsberichten von Anwohnern und Gästen, Akzeptanz in der Bevlkerung, infrastrukturellen Anforderungen, etc. Konkrete Handlungsempfehlungen für Städteplaner, ÖPNV-Betreiber/-Strategen oder Kommunen, die eine Einführung automatisierter Busse in Erwägung ziehen, runden das Werk ab.

  • Die Landwirtschaft in Deutschland, Europa und weltweit befindet sich in einem dramatischen Umbruchprozess. Einerseits bieten Liberalisierung und Marktffnung, neue technologische Entwicklungen, die wachsende Weltbevlkerung und neue Kundenwünsche vielen landwirtschaftlichen Betrieben neue Mglichkeiten. Andererseits stehen viele Landwirtinnen und Landwirte in internationaler Konkurrenz, sind zum betrieblichen Wachstum mit hohem Investitionsrisiko gezwungen, sind Teil strikt regulierter Wertschpfungsketten und müssen steigenden gesellschaftlichen Ansprüchen genügen. Zugleich machen sich viele Menschen Sorgen, dass die Prozesse der Rationalisierung und Modernisierung der landwirtschaftlichen Produktion auf Kosten von Natur-, Umwelt- und Tierschutz gehen. Auf vielen Ebenen wird daher bereits nach einer neuen Verständigung darüber gesucht, was die Gesellschaft von der Landwirtschaft erwartet, und welche Unterstützung die Landwirtinnen und Landwirte im Gegenzug dafür erwarten dürfen. Vor diesem Hintergrund entwickelt das vorliegende Open Access-Buch eine wissenschaftlich fundierte Kritik der Umweltauswirkungen der Landwirtschaft und der politischen Logik der Agrarpolitik. Es präsentiert ein neues Leitbild mit konkreten Indikatoren sowie alternative strategische Handlungsoptionen. Die umfassende Analyse wird zu einem Vorschlag für eine neue Architektur der europäischen Agrarpolitik gebündelt, die eine breite Diskussion um einen Neuen Gesellschaftsvertrag für die Landwirtschaft in Deutschland und Europa anstoßen soll.

  • This Open Access volume provides in-depth analysis of the wide range of ethical issues associated with drug-resistant infectious diseases. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is widely recognized to be one of the greatest threats to global public health in coming decades; and it has thus become a major topic of discussion among leading bioethicists and scholars from related disciplines including economics, epidemiology, law, and political theory. Topics covered in this volume include responsible use of antimicrobials; control of multi-resistant hospital-acquired infections; privacy and data collection; antibiotic use in childhood and at the end of life; agricultural and veterinary sources of resistance; resistant HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria; mandatory treatment; and trade-offs between current and future generations. As the first book focused on ethical issues associated with drug resistance, it makes a timely contribution to debates regarding practice and policy that are of crucial importance to global public health in the 21st century.

  • This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. It overviews the poisoning which occurred in the 1950s and 1960s among the residents in Minamata who ate seafood contaminated with methylmercury discharged from the chemical factory, Chisso Corporation. It describes the history, symptoms pathogenesis and research on the causal agent, and discusses the responses of Chisso and the national and local governments to the outbreak, the victims, the compensation and environmental restructuring as well as the court ruling on claims. Based on lecture notes from a university course, it includes students' suggestions for avoiding a repeat of the tragedy. The issue has not been settled yet, and this analysis of the incident provides useful insights into solutions to the current global mercury pollution problem. 

  • This book facilitates an integrative understanding of the development, genetics and evolution of butterfly wing patterns. To develop a deep and realistic understanding of the diversity and evolution of butterfly wing patterns, it is essential and necessary to approach the problem from various kinds of key research fields such as "evo-devo," "eco-devo," "developmental genetics," "ecology and adaptation," "food plants," and "theoretical modeling."
    The past decade-and-a-half has seen a veritable revolution in our understanding of the development, genetics and evolution of butterfly wing patterns. In addition, studies of how environmental and climatic factors affect the expression of color patterns has led to increasingly deeper understanding of the pervasiveness and underlying mechanisms of phenotypic plasticity. In recognition of the great progress in research on the biology, an international meeting titled "Integrative Approach to Understanding the Diversity of Butterfly Wing Patterns (IABP-2016)" was held at Chubu University, Japan in August 2016. This book consists of selected contributions from the meeting. Authors include main active researchers of new findings of corresponding genes as well as world leaders in both experimental and theoretical approaches to wing color patterns. The book provides excellent case studies for graduate and undergraduate classes in evolution, genetics/genomics, developmental biology, ecology, biochemistry, and also theoretical biology, opening the door to a new era in the integrative approach to the analysis of biological problems.This book is open access under a CC BY 4.0 license.